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Horse mackerel - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin, 2008
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
ICES Advice 2009
Horse mackerel - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin, 2008
Fact Sheet Citation  
Southern horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions VIIIc and IXa)
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
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Species:
FAO Names: en - Atlantic horse mackerel, fr - Chinchard d'Europe, es - Jurel, ru - Ставрида обыкновенная
Geographic extent of Horse mackerel - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Management unit: Yes
 
 
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m).   Vertical distribution: Pelagic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: National

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Exploitation
 

Factors affecting the fisheries and the stock

Changes in fishing technology and fishing patterns

Traditionally, this fishery is characterized by the high proportion of juveniles in catches. Recently the importance of the Spanish bottom trawl fleet, targeting mainly adult fish, is increasing.

The proportion of catches taken by the Spanish bottom-trawl fleet operating in subdivision IXa North, which accounted for less than 20% of the total catches until 2003,has increased to around 30% in recent years.
Assessment
 
Assessment Model
Methodology

Scientific basis

Data and methods

An assessment based on catch-at-age data disaggregated by fleet was presented for the first time last year. This year, it was found that the stock perception was highly dependent on the model structure. While an assessment was conducted in 2008, advice was based on average catch. ICES considers that the assessment needs to be further evaluated before used as a basis for advice.

Uncertainties in assessment and forecast

This year exploratory assessment shows that results are dependent on model structure. This raises concern about the reliability of the results, and a full investigation of the consequences of using alternative model structures is required.

Comparison with previous assessment and advice

No assessment is available for comparison. The advice is the same as last year.
Overall Assessment Results


Figure 7.4.4.1 Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Division IXa (Southern stock). Time-series of the total southern horse mackerel catches, divided by country, for the period 1963–2007 (Division IXa only, not including catches from the Gulf of Cadiz). Spanish catches for Division IXa only are not yet available.


Table 7.4.4.2 Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Division IXa (Southern stock). Annual catches (tonnes). Data from 1984–2008 are Working Group estimates.
Year Portugal Spain Total
1963 64,760 1  
1964 68,776 1  
1965 63,105 1  
1966 57,425 1  
1967 66,648 1  
1968 80,664 1  
1969 62,487 1  
1970 59,946 1  
1971 57,467 1  
1972 81,033 1  
1973 45,497 1  
1974 48,105 1  
1975 46,421 1  
1976 51,488 1  
1977 51,078 1  
1978 32,043 1  
1979 26,917 1  
1980 25,224 1  
1981 23,733 1  
1982 30,886 1  
1983 30,951 1  
1984 17,307 1  
1985 9,420 1  
1986 28,526 1  
1987 21,445 1  
1988 25,629 1  
1989 25,231 1  
1990 19,958 1  
1991 17,497 4,2752 21,772
1992 23,800 40602 27,860
1993 25,320 62002 31,520
1994 19,070 93802 28,450
1995 17,690 7,4492 25,140
1996 14,020 63402 20,360
1997 18580 10,9062 29,490
1998 21,390 20,2702 41,660
1999 14,440 13,3432 27,780
2000 14,350 11,8122 26,162
2001 13,760 11,1522 24,916
2002 14,270 8,2362 22,506
2003 11,242 7,6452 18,885
2004 13,110 11,3772 24,487
2005 13,307 9,3862 22,686
2006 14,607 9,2872 23,897
2007 10,381 12,4062 22,786
2008 9,290 13,7092 22,999

1Spanish catch data for Division IXa only are not yet available.

2Does not include Spanish catches in Division IXa South


Reference Point
 

No reference points have been proposed for this stock.
Projection

No short term forecast is presented.
Scientific Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries

ICES advises that catches in 2010 should not exceed 25 000 t.

Exploitation boundaries in relation to precautionary considerations

In absence of precautionary reference points these cannot be used to derive an advice. Based on the age composition of catches, the assessment conducted in 2008 and the exploratory assessment conducted in 2009, the recent level of catches does not seem to have been detrimental for the stock. ICES therefore recommends that catches in 2010 should not exceed the recent average catch of 25 000 t (2000–2004; 2003 is excluded because of the reduced effort following the Prestige oil spill). The catch advice for this stock only applies to Trachurus trachurus.


Year

ICES

Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries Predicted catch corresp. to advice2 Predicted catch corresponding to single-stock

Agreed

TAC1

ICES

Landings2,7

1987 Not assessed   -   72.53 554
1988 Mesh size increase   -   82.03 564
1989 No increase in F; TAC   72.5   73.03 564
1990 F at F0.1; TAC   38   55.04 494
1991 Precautionary TAC   61   73.04 22
1992 If required, precautionary TAC   61   73.04 26
1993 No advice   -   73.04 32
1994 Status quo prediction   555   73.04 26
1995 No long-term gains in increasing F   635   73.04 25
1996 No long-term gains in increasing F   605   73.04 23
1997 No advice   -   73.04 28
1998 F should not exceed the F(94–96)   59   73.04 42
1999 No increase in F   58   73.04 28
2000 F <Fpa   <59   68.04 27
2001 F <Fpa   <54   68.04 25
2002 F <0.113   <34   57.54 24
2003 Average of last 3 years   <49   55.24 20
2004 6 Should not exceed the recent average (2000–2002) 6 <47 55.04 24
2005 6 Should not exceed the recent average (2000–2002) 6 <257 55.04 23
2006 6 Should not exceed the recent average (2000–2004, excluding 2003) 6 <25 55.04 24
2007   Should not exceed the recent average (2000–2004, excluding 2003)   <25 55.04 23
2008   Should not exceed the recent average (2000–2004, excluding 2003)   <25 57.84 22
2009   Catch should not exceed the recent average (2000–2004, excluding 2003)   <25 57.84  
2010   Catch should not exceed the recent average (2000–2004, excluding 2003)   <25    

Weights in ‘000 t.

1Includes all Trachurus spp.

2Includes only Trachurus trachurus L.

3Division VIIIc, Subareas IX and X, and CECAF Division 34.1.1 (EC waters only).

4Division VIIIc and Subarea IX.

5Catch at status quo F.

6Single-stock boundary and the exploitation of this stock should be conducted in the context of mixed fisheries protecting stocks outside safe biological limits.

7Figures for Division IXa only from 1991 onwards, following the revision of stock boundaries in 2004.



Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Objectives

There are no explicit management objectives for this stock.
Management Advice

Management considerations

The fleets fishing for horse mackerel are also fishing for other species (e.g. sardine) and changes in the availability of those other species could affect the targeting on horse mackerel.

The migratory pattern of southern horse mackerel shows that age classes are not evenly distributed over the area inhabited by the stock. Most of the older fish is present in the waters off Galicia and northern Portugal. An increased fishing effort in those areas could lead to a decline in the spawning stock.


Table below summarizes TACs and ICES advice and catches for 2008, and 2009 TACs and advice.



From this table it can be seen that catches of the Southern horse mackerel and Western horse mackerel in 2008 are lower than the TACs and the ICES advice. To ensure precautionary management of all the horse mackerel stocks area TACs should be allocated according to the advice section of the above table.

Other species of horse mackerel are caught together with T. trachurus in Division IXa, in particular Trachurus picturatus of which 300–800 t have been caught annually since 2000. The advice for Southern horse mackerel applies to the Southern stock of Trachurus trachurus only.

Some of the horse mackerel is caught in mixed fisheries. Therefore management measures for horse mackerel should take into account the advice given to those stocks caught mixed fisheries. These measures could include selective gears, gear restrictions, area closures, etc.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Undefined
Abundance level: Undefined


Spawning biomass in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to highest yield Fishing mortality in relation to agreed target Comment
Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined  



In the absence of defined reference points, the state of this stock cannot be evaluated with regard to these. Catches decreased from the early 1960s but have been relatively stable since the early 1990s.
Source of information
 
ICES.2009.Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009.
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