Fisheries and Resources Monitoring System

Indonesia Shark Fisheries
Fishery  Fact Sheet
Status and trends of sharks fisheries in SouthEast Asia 2004
Indonesia Shark Fisheries
Fact Sheet Citation  
Outcomes from the Study on Shark Fisheries in Southeast Asia: Indonesia
Owned bySoutheast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) – more>>

Overview: Most of the Indonesian landings of shark species are bycatch of a number of fisheries, for example bycatch of tuna fishing using gillnet and longline fishing gears and bycatch of pelagic purse seines or ringnet in parts of the waters. Nevertheless, a couple of fishing gear and fishing method have been developed recently which aimed to catch sharks as target species. For example, dogfish sharks of the family Squalidae are as target species of bottom longline in the Indian Ocean south of Java and a number of pelagic sharks are as target species of shark longline. Sharks are also caught in artisanal fisheries, by local inshore and offshore commercial fisheries.

Location of Indonesia Shark Fisheries

Geographic reference:  Indonesia
Spatial Scale: National
Reference year: 2004
Approach: Fishery Resource

Harvested Resource
Fishery Area: Indonesia

Captured Species: Grey reef shark; Silky shark; Oceanic whitetip shark …  

Harvested Resource
Type of production system: Commercial; Artisanal; Semi-industrial   

Fishery Area
Climatic zone: Tropical.  

Geo References

In Pelabuhanratu, fishing ground are in the Indian Ocean from the southern part of Java to Sumatra (Tinjil Island, Pamengpeuk Island, Belimbing Island, Enggano Island and Siberut Island).Similarly, In Cilacap, fishing grounds are around the central Javanese waters (Nusakambangan island) ranged from latitudes 8 and 13˚S and longitudes 106 and 11.3˚E, and in Muara Baru, fishing grounds are in the Southern Sumatra Waters, South China Sea until Kalimantan waters, namely between latitudes 3˚N and 7˚S and longitudes102 and 117˚E. Whereas, in Benoa-Bali, the fishing seasons are usually between July and October which fishing grounds are in the Jimbaran Bay until the Maselembo waters in latitudes 5 and 11.6˚S.
Captured Species
Sharks are caught in fisheries targeting pelagic and demersal marine species.
Vessel Type
Flag State
Fishing Gear
In Indonesia, generally sharks are incidentally caught by tuna longline and gillnet (drift gillnet), but sometime sharks are also caught by drift longline. Based on the Table 1, Longline shows to be the main fishing gear for catching shark (60.83% from the total production), while gillnet gave the second highest contribution (39.10%) to the total production of shark during the study period.

Hooks and lines

Gillnets and entangling nets
June to September.

Environmental limitations to fishing: monsoon.
Post Harvest
Fish Utilisation
From the observation, the shark could potentially expand its usage as for the source of protein of the community or for the state surplus. Almost all of the parts of shark are valuable, e.g. fin, skin, meat, bones, stomach, liver, teeth, etc.
In Indonesia, shark caught by fishermen are usually sold to brokers/traders through an auction process before being marketed to the local consumer or exporter. The general pattern of shark market in Indonesia is shown on the following diagram:
Management unit: No

Jurisdictional framework
Management Body/Authority(ies): Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of Indonesia
Mandate: Management.  
Area of Competence: Indonesia
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Methods

Management measures

Activities-related measures
In Indonesia, the existing measures relevant to management of shark fisheries are Trade controls (CITES Appendix II listing of whale shark), and fisheries management measure (e.g. Fish Stocks Agreement, Regional Fisheries Management Bodies). In line with the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark (IPOA Shark), National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark (NPOA Shark) is now under establishing process.
Status and Trends
Based on the statistical data, the trends of sharks' production during 1994 - 2003 are various among the landing sites. In Pelabuhan Ratu and Cilacap, the shark production tends to decrease where in Pelabuhan Ratu, the sharks production decreased by 82.68 %, namely from 562,891 ton (1993) to 97,492 ton (2003), while in Cilacap, the sharks production decreased by 81.03 %, namely from 863,943 ton (1993) to 163,914 ton (2003). The decreasing of total sharks production in both landing sites were caused mostly by reducing of fishing efforts. In this case, the catching areas tend to be farther from the coastline resulting the difficulty of small boats to reach those areas as well as the increasing of operating cost due to the rising price of fuel.

Meanwhile, in Benoa Bali, the shark production tends to be more stable every year with increasing production from 106 ton (19.53%) in 1994 to 126.7 ton in 2003. Whereas, in Muara Baru (Jakarta) and Bitung (North Sulawesi), the sharks production have fluctuated in which the peak of production were 637.1 ton in 1999 in Muara Baru (Jakarta) and 10,500.5 ton in 1995 in Bitung (North Sulawesi).
Source of Information
Information on shark fisheries in Indonesia was collected under the one year study on shark fisheries in the ASEAN region, conducted by SEAFDEC in collaboration with eight Member Countries, namely Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The study aims to develop standard method for information collection on shark fisheries, to be further undertaken by each Member Countries, to support sustainable management and utilization of sharks in the ASEAN region.
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