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Tusk - Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea, Spitzbergen and Bear Island, 2008
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
ICES Advice 2009
Tusk - Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea, Spitzbergen and Bear Island, 2008
Fact Sheet Citation  
Tusk in Subarea I and II (Arctic)
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
 
Species:
FAO Names: en - Tusk(=Cusk), fr - Brosme, es - Brosmio, ar - بروسمة, zh - 单鳍鳕, ru - Менек (=морской налим)
Geographic extent of Tusk - Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea, Spitzbergen and Bear Island
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
 
 
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Slope (200 m - 1000 m).   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Exploitation
 

Factors affecting the fisheries and the stock

There is no species-specific management of the tusk fishery in Subareas I and II, and the species is a bycatch. The exploitation is influenced by regulations aimed at other groundfish species, e.g. cod and haddock. Catches are primarily by Norwegian vessels and since 2003, EU vessels have been subject to a restricted TAC. In 2007 this was set at 25 t (includes also Area XIV).
Assessment
 
Assessment Model
Methodology

Scientific basis

Summaries of the total landings for all areas are given in Table 9.4.12.1.1 and Figure 9.4.12.1.1. Landings by Subarea and by nation are given in Table 9.4.12.1.2.

Landings are available for all relevant fleets. No discard information was available. Length compositions/mean lengths from 1976 to present were available for some fleets.

Cpue series from several fleets are shown in Figure 9.4.12.1.3.

Comparison with previous assessment and advice

The information base is similar to previous assessments. The previous advice was for a 30% reduction in catches. Catches have increased since 2006 and a 50% reduction will now be required to reach the same catch level.
Overall Assessment Results


Table 9.4.12.1.1. Tusk I and II. Working Group estimates of landings.
Year I IIa IIb All areas
1988   14403 0 14403
1989   19350 0 19350
1990   18628 0 18628
1991   18306 0 18306
1992   15974 0 15974
1993   17584 1 17585
1994   12566 0 12566
1995   11388 229 11617
1996 587 12047 161 12795
1997 665 8667 94 9426
1998 805 14475 73 15353
1999 907 16250 26 17183
2000 798 13192 18 14008
2001 614 11301 146 12061
2002 799 11355 37 12191
2003 581 7316 43 7940
2004 623 6684 119 7426
2005 562 6324 164 7050
2006 446 9351 191 9988
2007* 357 10006 368 10731


Table 9.4.12.1.2. Tusk in Subareas I and II. Landings by area and country. Tusk I. WG estimates of landings.
Year Norway Russia Faroes Iceland Ireland Total
1996 587         587
1997 665         665
1998 805         805
1999 907         907
2000 738 43 1 16   798
2001 595 6   13   614
2002 791 8 n/a 0   799
2003 571 5     5 581
2004 620 2     1 623
2005 562         562
2006 442 4       446
2007* 355 2       357
*Preliminary


Tusk IIa. WG estimates of landings.
Year Faroes France Germany Greenland Norway E & W Scotland Russia Ireland Total
1988 115 32 13 - 14241 2 -     14403
1989 75 55 10 - 19206 4 -     19350
1990 153 63 13 - 18387 12 +     18628
1991 38 32 6 - 18227 3 +     18306
1992 33 21 2 - 15908 10 -     15974
1993 - 23 2 11 17545 3 +     17584
1994 281 14 2 - 12266 3 -     12566
1995 77 16 3 20 11271 1       11388
1996 0 12 5   12029 1       12047
1997 1 21 1   8642 2 +     8667
1998   9 1   14463 1 1 -   14475
1999   7 +   16213   2 28   16250
2000   8 1   13120 3 2 58   13192
2001 11 15 +   11200 1 3 66 5 11301
2002   3     11303 1 4 39 5 11355
2003 6 2     7284   3 21   7316
2004 12 2     6607   1 61 1 6684
2005 29 6     6249     37 3 6324
2006 33 9     9246 1   51 11 9351
2007* 53 6     9845 1 4 85 12 10006
*Preliminary


Tusk IIb. WG estimates of landings.
Year Norway E & W Russia Ireland Total
1988   -     0
1989   -     0
1990   -     0
1991   -     0
1992   -     0
1993   1     1
1994   -     0
1995 229 -     229
1996 161       161
1997 92 2     94
1998 73 + -   73
1999 26   4   26
2000 15 - 3   18
2001 141 - 5   146
2002 30 - 7   37
2003 43       43
2004 114   5   119
2005 148   16   164
2006 168   23   191
2007* 350   17 1 368


Figure 9.4.12.1.1. Tusk in I and II. Total international landings.


Figure 9.4.12.1.2. Norwegian tusk landings 1897–2007 in all areas.


Figure 9.4.12.1.3. Tusk I and II. Estimates of cpue (kg/1000 hooks) of tusk based on skippers’ logbooks (pre-1994) and official logbooks (post-2000).

Reference Point
 

In common with other deep-water stocks, Ulim has previously been proposed at 0.2* virgin biomass and Upa at 0.5* virgin biomass (ICES, 1998). In the absence of abundance indices that correspond to the start of the fishery, the reference points cannot be calculated.
Scientific Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries

Cpue in Areas I and II has been at a reduced level. ICES reiterates the advice to constrain catches to 5000 t and to collect information that can be used to evaluate a long-term sustainable level of exploitation.
Management
 
Management Advice

Management considerations

Changes in fishing technology and fishing patterns

Tusk is taken in mixed fisheries with ling and as a bycatch in fisheries for cod, mainly in longline fisheries. The major fisheries are the Norwegian longline and gillnet fisheries, but there are also bycatches by other gears, i.e., trawls and handline. Of the Norwegian landings, around 85% are taken by longlines, 10% by gillnets, and the remainder by a variety of other gears. Other nations catch tusk as a bycatch in trawl fisheries.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Undefined
Abundance level: Undefined

Tusk has been exploited in Subareas I and II for centuries, but landings increased from the 1950s onwards (Figure 9.4.12.2). The state of the stock is unknown. Cpue has in recent years been well below historical levels.
Source of information
 
ICES.2009.Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009.
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