Alfonsino  South East Atlantic
Marine Resource Fact Sheet 
  Alfonsino  South East Atlantic 
 Data Ownership  This document provided, maintained and owned by South East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (SEAFO) , is part of SEAFO Stock Status Reports data collection. 
 Related observations  Locate in inventory   Species:  FAO Names: en  Splendid alfonsino, fr  Béryx long, es  Alfonsino besugo, ar  عُنقُد طويل, zh  红金眼鲷 


 Geographic extent of Alfonsino  South East Atlantic
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FAO Fishing Statistical Division Areas 

47.A.0  SEAFO division A.0 

47.A.1  SEAFO division A.1 

47.B.0  SEAFO division B.0 

47.B.1  SEAFO division B.1 

47.C.0  SEAFO division C.0 

47.C.1  SEAFO division C.1 

47.D.0  SEAFO division D.0 

47.D.1  SEAFO division D.1 





 Main Descriptors  Considered a single stock: No
Spatial Scale: Regional Management unit: Yes
Reference year: 2019

Considered a single stock: A group of individuals in a species occupying a well defined spatial range independent of other stocks of the same species. It can be affected by random dispersal movements and directed migrations due to seasonal or reproductive activity. 
Spatial Scale: Spatial scale contains a standard term such as Global, Regional (e.g. for the whole Atlantic), subregional (e.g. for a part of the Atlantic), national, local (for subnational levels). 
Considered a management unit: An aquatic resource or fishery is
declared as [Fishery] Management Unit if it is
effectively the focus for the application of selected
management methods and measures, within the broader
framework of a management system. According to the FAO
Glossary for Responsible Fishing, "a Fishery Management
Unit (FMU) is a fishery or a portion of a fishery
identified in a Fishery Management Plan (FMP) relevant
to the FMP's management objectives." FMU's may be
organised around fisheries biological, geographic,
economic, technical, social or ecological dimensions ,
and the makeup and attribute of a fishery management
unit depends mainly on the FMP's management
objectives. 
Jurisdictional distribution: Jurisdictional qualifier (e.g.
"shared", "shared  highly migratory") of the aquatic
resource related with its spatial distribution. 
Environmental group: Classification of the aquatic
resource according to the environmental group (e.g.
pelagic invertebrate, or demersal fish) to which the
species belong. 
Reference Year: The Reference Year is the last year considered in the stock assessment and/or fishery status. 
    History Historically the Korean trawl fishery was the only fishery targeting the alfonsino in the SEAFO CA. During the period 20102013 the Korean midwater trawl fishery targeted mainly splendid alfonsino, but instead caught mainly pelagic armourhead. During the period 20102013 two fishing vessels participated in the fishery activity which ended in 2014. In 2019, no fishing activity targeting this species was conducted in SEAFO CA. Although primarily considered as a midwater trawl fishery, 94% of the tows recorded by onboard observers were classified as “Demersal”. Whether or not these trawls were bottom trawls remains uncertain, and this is an issue that still requires clarification. The first Korean vessel operated as a stern trawler with the following fishing gears (Table 1):  HAMPIDJAN NET is a bottom otter trawl with twopiece nets of 66 m in length. The head rope is 48 m long; ground rope is 50 m; the height, width and girth of the net are 5.5 m, 30 m and 100 m, respectively. The codend mesh size is 120 mm. The ground gear is 50 m in length and 903 kg in weight, and the float is 1,018 kg.
 MANUFACTURED NET is a fourpiece net with an overall length of 66.9 m. The lengths of the head rope and ground rope are 59.0 m and 77.9 m, respectively. The height, width and girth of the net are 5.5 m, 200 m and 83 m, respectively. The codend mesh size is 120 mm. The ground is 77.9 m in length and the weight of the ground is 2,068 kg. The float is 913.200 kg with the floating rate of 44%.
 MIDWATER NET is 210 m long. The lengths of head rope and ground ropes are 93.6 m. The height and width of the net are 70.0 m and 240260 m, respectively. The girth of the net is 816 m and the codend mesh size is 120 mm.
Table 1. Fishing gear specifications at vessel 1. Gear Specifications  HAMPIDJAN NET bottom trawl  MANUFACTURED NET bottom trawl  MIDWATER NET  Otter board  type  VRSTYPE  VRSTYPE  VRSTYPE   material  Steel  Steel  Steel   size (mm)  2,300 x 4,030  2,750 x 4,900  1,854 x 3,818   weight (kg)  3,930  4,320  2,000   under water weight (kg)  2,619  2,473  1,145  Trawl Net  purpose  bottom fishing (figure1)  bottom fishing (figure2)  midwater fishing (figure3)   net length overall(m)  66  66.9  210.0   head rope (m)  48  59.0  93.6   ground rope (m)  50  77.9  93.6   net height (m)  5.5  5.5  70   net width (m)  30  200  240~260   net girth (m)  100  83  816   mesh size (mm)  120  120  120  The second Korean vessel was also a stern trawler which operated with two types of fishing gears: a midwater trawl net; and the bottom trawl net. The gear used for the operation in the SEAFO Convention Area was the midwater KITE gear. The height of the net’s gate is approximately 50 m, and the total length is around 280 m. When net is settled, it sinks underwater and the sinking depth of the net is controlled by the wire ropes. The upper and lower parts of the bottom trawl net PE Net have attached plastic buoys and rubber balls respectively. As in the case of KITE gear the wire ropes control the sinking depth of the settled gear. Habitat and Biology Climatic zone: Temperate. Bottom type: Unspecified. Depth zone: Slope (200 m  1000 m). Horizontal distribution: Oceanic. Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic. Alfonsino has a global distribution and has been reported from all tropical and temperate oceans (excluding from the northeast Pacific and Mediterranean Sea) between latitudes of about 65°N and 43°S. It occurs from depths of about 25 m to at least 1,300 m (Busakhin 1982). In the Atlantic Ocean the species occurs at both the western (Gulf of Maine to the Gulf of Mexico) and eastern Atlantic (off south western Europe and the Canary Islands to South Africa) (Fig. 1). This species is benthopelagic: adults inhabit the outer shelf (180 m) and slope to at least 1,300 m depth, probably moving further from the bottom at night but ascending to feed in midwater during the night; often found over seamounts and underwater ridges. There are no estimates of migration behaviour. The species is oviparous; spawning in batches. Eggs, larvae and juveniles are pelagic.  Figure 1. The distribution of Alfonsino (B. splendens) (source: FishBase).  Geo References  Geographic extent of Alfonsino  South East Atlantic
FAO Fishing Statistical Division Areas  47.A.0: SEAFO division A.0  47.A.1: SEAFO division A.1  47.B.0: SEAFO division B.0  47.B.1: SEAFO division B.1  47.C.0: SEAFO division C.0  47.C.1: SEAFO division C.1  47.D.0: SEAFO division D.0  47.D.1: SEAFO division D.1 
    Intersecting Major FAO areas and LME areas 
The following area codes have been found as intersecting the distribution of Alfonsino  South East Atlantic Resource Structure Considered a single stock: No Exploitation Table 2 presents Alfonsino catches by country, as well as fishing gear and the subdivisions in which the catch was taken. The main fishing countries worked in the area included Russia (bottom trawl) in the late 1970s, Ukraine in the mid1990s, Russia (bottom trawl), Norway (bottom trawl), Spain (MWT /BLL), Poland and Namibia (bottom trawl) in the late 1990s, and South Korea (midwater trawl) for 4 years from 2010 to 2013, respectively, 198 tonnes, 196 tonnes, 172 tonnes and 1.6tonnes. Historically the highest catches of the fish were recorded by Russia with 2,972 and 2,800 tons in 1977 and 1997 respectively, Poland 1,964 tonnes in 1995, and Norway 1,066 tons in 1998 in the SEAFO CA. Table 2a. Catches (tonnes) of Alfonsino (B. splendens) made by various countries.
Flag State 
Namibia 
Namibia 
Norway 
Russia 
Portugal 
Ukraine 
Korea 
Fishing method 
Bottom trawl 
Bottom trawl 
Bottom trawl 
Bottom trawl 
Bottom trawl 
UNK 
Midwater trawl 
Management Area 
B1 
C0 
C1 
A1 
UNK 
UNK 
UNK 
B1 
Catch details (t) 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
1976 


N/F 
N/F 


252^{#} 







1977 


N/F 
N/F 


2972^{#} 







1978 


N/F 
N/F 


125^{#} 







1993 


N/F 
N/F 






172 



1994 


N/F 
N/F 










1995 
1^{#} 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 








1996 
368 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 




747 



1997 
208 

N/F 
N/F 
836 

2800 



392 



1998 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
1066 

69^{§} 







1999 
1 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 


3^{§} 





2000 
<1 

N/F 
N/F 
242 



1^{§} 





2001 
1 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 


7^{§} 





2002 
0 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 


1^{§} 





2003 
0 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 


5^{§} 





2004 
6 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
210 







2005 
1 

N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
54 







2006 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
<1 





2007 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2008 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2009 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2010 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
159 
0 
2011 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
165 
0 
2012 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
172 
0 
2013 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
13 
0 
2014 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2015 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2016 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2017 
N/F 
N/F 
<1 
<1 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2018 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2019 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F = No Fishing. Blank fields = No data available. UNK = Unknown. # = Values taken from the Japp (1999). § = Values from FAO. Ret.= Retained catch. Dis. = Discarded catch. Table 2b. Catches (tonnes) of Alfonsino (B. splendens) made by various countries.
Nation 
Spain 
Poland 
Cook Island 
Mauritius 
Cyprus 
South Africa 
Fishing method 
Midwater trawl and Longlines 
UNK 
Bottom trawl 
Bottom trawl 
Bottom trawl 
Bottom trawl 
Management Area 
UNK 
UNK 
UNK 
UNK 
UNK 
B1 
Catch details (t) 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
Ret. 
Dis. 
1976 












1977 












1978 












1993 












1994 












1995 


1964^{§} 







60^{#} 

1996 










109^{#} 

1997 
186^{§} 









124^{#} 

1998 
402^{§} 











1999 












2000 












2001 
2 











2002 












2003 
2 











2004 
4 



142 

115 

437 



2005 
72 











2006 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2007 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2008 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2009 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2010 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2011 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2012 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2013 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2014 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2015 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2016 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2017 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2018 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
2019 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F 
N/F = No Fishing. Blank fields = No data available. UNK = Unknown.# = Values taken from the Japp (1999). § = Values from FAO. Ret.= Retained catch. Dis. = Discarded catch. Assessment It should be recognized that the data available for assessment is extremely sparse and represents a short time series. The perception of the stock as described is based on only 3 years of catch and effort data. Length frequency distributions could not be derived based on the insufficient length samples submitted to the Secretariat. Catch and effort data per haul on Alfonsino were collected by Korean vessels for only 3 years from 2010 to 2012. These data, although short in series, can be used to get a perception of the trend in nominal CPUE. Data The data used to calculate CPUE of Alfonsino were derived from fishing hauls in which the total catch of Beryx splendens represented more than 80% of the total combined catch per set of P. richardsoni and Beryx splendens caught by Korean trawls around the Valdivia Bank. This criterion is used since the catches of these two species are negatively correlated, i.e. when one of these two species occurs in the haul the other is usually very low. In each haul the estimate of CPUE of Beryx splendens is represented as the ratio of total catch of the species by the haul duration time. Assessment Model Type: Others Nominal CPUE was used to derive a perception of the development of the fishery in the period 20102012. Length data and frequency distribution Data Using the data collected by Korean trawl fisheries between 2010 and 2013, the length frequency distributions were analysed (Table 3 and Fig. 7). The catch landing data in 2013 were not enough to represent the situation of the southern area of Division B1. The length of Alfonsino in the southern area of Division B1 was the largest with average 26.5 cm and 28.0 cm at the 3rd quartile, with two modes at 22 cm and 27 cm in 2011. In the southern area of Division B1 the length of the fish was also the largest in 2011 and reached about 50 cm fork length. No trend appeared in 2012 (MayJune) due to paucity of samples (23 samples). Overall length trends between the areas during 20122013 were asymmetric. The length of the species in the northern part was larger than that of southern part in 2012 and 2013. Table 3. Results of length composition of Alfonsino collected by Korean vessels in SEAFO CA (B1) (20102012).

2010 
2011 
2012 (5~6) 2012(11) 
2013 

South 
North 
South 
North 
South 
North 
South 
North 
South 
North 
No. of samples 
200 
841 
174 
593 
514 
23 
77 
 
97 
5 
Minimum length 
19.0 
17.0 
20.0 
15.0 
17.0 
26.0 
24.0 
 
17.0 
25.0 
Maximum length 
42.0 
47.0 
50.0 
48.0 
34.0 
35.0 
39.0 
 
31.0 
34.0 
Average length 
25.8 
24.8 
26.5 
27.8 
24.8 
31.0 
31.5 
 
23.7 
27.4 
Median length 
25.0 
24.0 
25.0 
28.0 
25.0 
32.0 
32.0 
 
22.0 
26.0 
1^{st}quartile length 
23.0 
22.0 
23.0 
25.0 
23.0 
30.0 
29.0 
 
21.0 
25.0 
3^{rd}quartile length 
27.0 
26.0 
28.0 
31.0 
26.0 
32.5 
34.0 
 
27.0 
27.0 
 Figure 7. Fork length distribution of Alfonsino (Beryx splendens) by depth for 20102013.  Table 4. Summary of fork length distribution of Alfonsino (Beryx splendens) by depth for 20102013.

2010 
2011 
2012(5~6) 2012(11) 

South 
North 
South 
North 
South 
North 
South 
North 
No. of Samples 
841 
200 
174 
593 
514 
23 
77 
 
Average Depth (m) 
210.9 
211.1 
229.6 
238.4 
323.8 
288.5 
248.2 
 
Average FL (cm) 
25.8 
24.8 
26.5 
27.8 
24.8 
31.0 
31.5 
 
 Figure 8. The number of individuals of Alfonsino sampled per haul over the period 2010 to 2013 in the SEAFO CA. Data from Observer Reports submitted to SEAFO.  Table 5. Number of sets by year, minimum and maximum number of individuals per set and the number of individuals sampled during the period 2010 to 2013 in the SEAFO CA.
Year 
No. of Sets Observed 
Mean Individuals 
Min. Individuals 
Max. Individuals 
Mean sample size/tonnes 
2010 
7 
17.429 
10 
25 
0.92 
2011 
7 
19.143 
5 
75 
1.36 
2012 
29 
7.345 
1 
16 
0.06 
2013 
7 
3.143 
1 
7 
1.94 
Lengthweight relationships Figure 9 shows the length and weight relationship of Alfonsino for 20102013. Two parameters of the lengthweight relationship were 0.022 for α and 3.010 for β of combined sex of Alfonsino.  Figure 9. Relationship between length and weight of Alfonsino (B. splendens) in the SEAFO CA for 20102013.  Age data and growth parameters The maximum observed age of Alfonsino in the Guinean Gulf was 20 years. The growth parameters of Alfonsino were estimated as K=0.097 year^1, Linf=48 cm, and t0=3.08 year^1 using the specimens from Guinean Gulf (LópezAbellán et al. 2008). Reproductive parameters The reproductive parameters of Alfonsino were analysed as follows. Spawning season was evaluated as the period from November to February (Nova Caledonia). Length at 1 ^{st} maturity was estimated as fork length 39.67 cm for females (95% c.i.=39.34, 40.02 cm) and 36.88 cm for males (95% c.i.=36.45, 37.36 cm) (Flores et al. 2012). Fecundity was calculated as 270,000–650,000 eggs (source: FishBase). The biological productivity of B. splendens is likely to be moderate to low in general (Anonymous, 2007). Alfonsinos are serial spawners and reproduce in the areas that they normally inhabit. Average size at sexual maturity appears to be about 30–34 cm (4–6 years old), and can vary between localities (González et al. 2003). The annual numbers and proportion of the fish by gonad maturity stage by Korean trawl fisheries during the period of 20102013 are presented in Table 6 and Figure 9. Time of spawning also varies markedly between seasons. The proportion of immature fishes was 99.4%, 91.4%, 98.6% and 97.1% in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The fish, which is in prespawning and spawning gonad stages, appeared from October indicating that the spawning season may start from sometime after October. To get more accurate reproduction results of Alfonsino in the SEAFO Area, there is a need to collect data for a few more years. Table 6. Annual number of fish by maturity stages of Alfonsino (B. splendens) in the SEAFO CA for 2010 to 2013.
Year 
Month 
Maturity stage 


Immature 
Developing 
Prespawning 
Spawning 
Spent 
2010 
Sep 
882 
66 
6 
0 
0 

Oct 
33 
6 
0 
0 
0 

Nov 
0 
20 
0 
0 
0 
2011 
Jan 
95 
239 
0 
0 
0 

Sep 
37 
1 
0 
0 
0 

Oct 
18 
20 
12 
0 
0 

Nov 
26 
77 
34 
2 
0 
2012 
May 
16 
7 
0 
0 
0 

Jun 
452 
32 
0 
0 
0 

Nov 
29 
40 
3 
5 
0 
2013 
Oct 
42 
4 
0 
0 
0 

Nov 
28 
25 
3 
0 
0 
 Figure 10. The proportion of maturity stage of Alfonsino in the SEAFO CA for 20102013. (1:immature, 2: developing, 3: prespawning, 4: spawning, and 5: spent).  Natural Mortality There is no available information and data in the SEAFO CA. Feeding and trophic relationships (including species interaction) There is no available information and data in the SEAFO CA. Tagging and migration No tagging and migration studies on Alfonsino have been done in the SEAFO CA. Others Results Reference Point No biological reference points could be determined, and the SC suggests using an empirical Harvest Control Rule (HCR) to regulate the fishery until the data situation is improved. A candidate HCR consists of the average catch of the last three years to which a 20% uncertainty cap is applied. ICES Harvest Control Rules, category 5: Data poor stocks (only landings data). Calculation of average catch for three years (20102012) as = (159+ 165+172)/3 =165 And calculation of the catch advise as = 0.8*165 = 132 t Overall Assessment Results The progression in CPUE over time showed marked variability and no clear trend as observed in figure 11.  Figure 11. Plot of nominal CPUE for 20102012.  Management Management unit: Yes Management Advice Considering that the TACs set for Alfonsino under CMTAC01 (2018) is reviewed every two years, and that the last review was done in 2018 for the period from 2019 – 2020. Alfonsino is a seamountassociated species that form aggregations, and the experience worldwide is that serial depletion of aggregations at different seamounts can happen. In the recent fisheries for the species in SEAFO the fishery was concentrated on a single seamount summit, the Valdivia Bank, where it was mainly a bycatch in the target fishery for pelagic armourhead. The only information available from 2015 is the limited observations from the RV Dr Fridtjof Nansen survey noting that only scattered specimens of the species occurred in the main fishing area. It is also recognized that the last three year’s interruption in the exploitation has provided potential for recovery of the resource in the main fishing area on Valdivia Bank. There is however not enough information from any source to determine with certainty whether recovery has happened or not happened. The SC however recognized that without future fishery data nor survey information the basis for providing scientific advice will deteriorate. The SC therefore discussed what advisory option would be most appropriate while maintaining the potential for data provision from a fishery. It must also be taken into account that the alfonsino is mainly a bycatch and that the catches will depend on the activity level in the target fishery for armourhead. The SC considered the TAC level advised in 2013 as precautionary at that time. Considering no fishing pressures, in the last 6 years and the development of the resource, the SC recommends a TAC of 200 tonnes (status quo) for the SEAFO CA, of which a maximum of 132 tonnes may be taken in Division B1. Bibliography Anonymous “Information describing alfonsino (Beryx splendens) fisheries relating to the South Pacific Regional Fishery Management Organisation (Working Draft, 20 June 2007). SPRFMOIVSWG09.” 2007. Busakhin, S.V. “Systematics and distribution of the family Berycidae (Osteichthyes) in the World Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology 22 (6): 1–21.” 1982. Clark, M., R. O'Driscoll “Deepwater fisheries and aspects of their impact on seamount habitat in New Zealand. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 31: 441458.” 2003 http://journal.nafo.int/Portals/0/2003Vol31/clark.pdf De Lury, D.B. “On the estimation of biological populations. Biometrics, 3: 145–167.” 1947. 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Marine Ecology Progress Series 213: 111125.” 2001 http://www.intres.com/articles/meps/213/m213p111.pdf Lehodey, P.and R. Grandperrin “Age and growth of the Alfonsino Beryx splendens over seamounts off New Caledonia. Marine Biology 125: 249–258.” 1996 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00346305# Leslie, P.H. and D.H.S. Davis “An attempt to determine the absolute number of rats on a given area. J. Anim. Ecol., 8: 94–113.” 1939. López Abellán, L.J., M.T.G. Santamaría and E. Román “Estudio comparado del crecimiento del alfonsiño Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 de las montañas submarinas del golfo de Guinea y del océano Índico suroccidental. Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 23 (14): 3344.” 2007. Maul, G.E. “Berycidae. p. 740742. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.L. Bauchot, J.C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the northeastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.” 1986. Maul, G.E. “Berycidae. p. 626. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Checklist of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.” 1990. Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka “Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p.” 1986. Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts and P. McMillan “New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 19. 279 p.” 1989. Paxton, J.R. “Berycidae. Alfonsinos. p. 22182220. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. Rico, V.; Lorenzo, J.M.; González, J.A.; Krug, H.M.; Mendonça, A.; Gouveia, E.; Afonso Dias, M. (2001). Age and growth of the Alfonsino Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 from the Macronesian archipelagos. Fisheries Research 49: 233–240.” 1999. Rico, V., J.A. Lorenzo, J.A. González, H.M. 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