Alfonsino  South East Atlantic
Marine Resource Fact Sheet 
  Alfonsino  South East Atlantic 
 Data Ownership  This document provided, maintained and owned by South East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (SEAFO) , is part of SEAFO Stock Status Reports data collection. 
 Related observations  Locate in inventory   Species:  FAO Names: en  Splendid alfonsino, fr  Béryx long, es  Alfonsino besugo, ar  عُنقُد طويل, zh  红金眼鲷 


 Geographic extent of Alfonsino  South East Atlantic Map tips  Click on to turn layers on and off
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FAO Fishing Statistical Division Areas 

47.A.0  SEAFO division A.0 

47.A.1  SEAFO division A.1 

47.B.0  SEAFO division B.0 

47.B.1  SEAFO division B.1 

47.C.0  SEAFO division C.0 

47.C.1  SEAFO division C.1 

47.D.0  SEAFO division D.0 

47.D.1  SEAFO division D.1 





 Main Descriptors  Considered a single stock: No Spatial Scale: Regional Management unit: Yes Reference year: 2019

Considered a single stock: A group of individuals in a species occupying a well defined spatial range independent of other stocks of the same species. It can be affected by random dispersal movements and directed migrations due to seasonal or reproductive activity. 
Spatial Scale: Spatial scale contains a standard term such as Global, Regional (e.g. for the whole Atlantic), subregional (e.g. for a part of the Atlantic), national, local (for subnational levels). 
Considered a management unit: An aquatic resource or fishery is declared as [Fishery] Management Unit if it is effectively the focus for the application of selected management methods and measures, within the broader framework of a management system. According to the FAO Glossary for Responsible Fishing, "a Fishery Management Unit (FMU) is a fishery or a portion of a fishery identified in a Fishery Management Plan (FMP) relevant to the FMP's management objectives." FMU's may be organised around fisheries biological, geographic, economic, technical, social or ecological dimensions , and the makeup and attribute of a fishery management unit depends mainly on the FMP's management objectives. 
Jurisdictional distribution: Jurisdictional qualifier (e.g. "shared", "shared  highly migratory") of the aquatic resource related with its spatial distribution. 
Environmental group: Classification of the aquatic resource according to the environmental group (e.g. pelagic invertebrate, or demersal fish) to which the species belong. 
Reference Year: The Reference Year is the last year considered in the stock assessment and/or fishery status. 
    History Historically the Korean trawl fishery was the only fishery targeting the alfonsino in the SEAFO CA. During the period 20102013 the Korean midwater trawl fishery targeted mainly splendid alfonsino, but instead caught mainly pelagic armourhead. During the period 20102013 two fishing vessels participated in the fishery activity which ended in 2014. In 2019, no fishing activity targeting this species was conducted in SEAFO CA. Although primarily considered as a midwater trawl fishery, 94% of the tows recorded by onboard observers were classified as “Demersal”. Whether or not these trawls were bottom trawls remains uncertain, and this is an issue that still requires clarification. The first Korean vessel operated as a stern trawler with the following fishing gears (Table 1):  HAMPIDJAN NET is a bottom otter trawl with twopiece nets of 66 m in length. The head rope is 48 m long; ground rope is 50 m; the height, width and girth of the net are 5.5 m, 30 m and 100 m, respectively. The codend mesh size is 120 mm. The ground gear is 50 m in length and 903 kg in weight, and the float is 1,018 kg.
 MANUFACTURED NET is a fourpiece net with an overall length of 66.9 m. The lengths of the head rope and ground rope are 59.0 m and 77.9 m, respectively. The height, width and girth of the net are 5.5 m, 200 m and 83 m, respectively. The codend mesh size is 120 mm. The ground is 77.9 m in length and the weight of the ground is 2,068 kg. The float is 913.200 kg with the floating rate of 44%.
 MIDWATER NET is 210 m long. The lengths of head rope and ground ropes are 93.6 m. The height and width of the net are 70.0 m and 240260 m, respectively. The girth of the net is 816 m and the codend mesh size is 120 mm.
Table 1. Fishing gear specifications at vessel 1. Gear Specifications  HAMPIDJAN NET bottom trawl  MANUFACTURED NET bottom trawl  MIDWATER NET  Otter board  type  VRSTYPE  VRSTYPE  VRSTYPE   material  Steel  Steel  Steel   size (mm)  2,300 x 4,030  2,750 x 4,900  1,854 x 3,818   weight (kg)  3,930  4,320  2,000   under water weight (kg)  2,619  2,473  1,145  Trawl Net  purpose  bottom fishing (figure1)  bottom fishing (figure2)  midwater fishing (figure3)   net length overall(m)  66  66.9  210.0   head rope (m)  48  59.0  93.6   ground rope (m)  50  77.9  93.6   net height (m)  5.5  5.5  70   net width (m)  30  200  240~260   net girth (m)  100  83  816   mesh size (mm)  120  120  120  The second Korean vessel was also a stern trawler which operated with two types of fishing gears: a midwater trawl net; and the bottom trawl net. The gear used for the operation in the SEAFO Convention Area was the midwater KITE gear. The height of the net’s gate is approximately 50 m, and the total length is around 280 m. When net is settled, it sinks underwater and the sinking depth of the net is controlled by the wire ropes. The upper and lower parts of the bottom trawl net PE Net have attached plastic buoys and rubber balls respectively. As in the case of KITE gear the wire ropes control the sinking depth of the settled gear. Habitat and Biology Climatic zone: Temperate. Bottom type: Unspecified. Depth zone: Slope (200 m  1000 m). Horizontal distribution: Oceanic. Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic. Alfonsino has a global distribution and has been reported from all tropical and temperate oceans (excluding from the northeast Pacific and Mediterranean Sea) between latitudes of about 65°N and 43°S. It occurs from depths of about 25 m to at least 1,300 m (Busakhin 1982). In the Atlantic Ocean the species occurs at both the western (Gulf of Maine to the Gulf of Mexico) and eastern Atlantic (off south western Europe and the Canary Islands to South Africa) (Fig. 1). This species is benthopelagic: adults inhabit the outer shelf (180 m) and slope to at least 1,300 m depth, probably moving further from the bottom at night but ascending to feed in midwater during the night; often found over seamounts and underwater ridges. There are no estimates of migration behaviour. The species is oviparous; spawning in batches. Eggs, larvae and juveniles are pelagic.  Figure 1. The distribution of Alfonsino (B. splendens) (source: FishBase).  Geo References  Geographic extent of Alfonsino  South East Atlantic
FAO Fishing Statistical Division Areas  47.A.0: SEAFO division A.0  47.A.1: SEAFO division A.1  47.B.0: SEAFO division B.0  47.B.1: SEAFO division B.1  47.C.0: SEAFO division C.0  47.C.1: SEAFO division C.1  47.D.0: SEAFO division D.0  47.D.1: SEAFO division D.1 
    Intersecting Major FAO areas and LME areas 
The following area codes have been found as intersecting the distribution of Alfonsino  South East Atlantic Resource Structure Considered a single stock: No Exploitation Table 2 presents Alfonsino catches by country, as well as fishing gear and the subdivisions in which the catch was taken. The main fishing countries worked in the area included Russia (bottom trawl) in the late 1970s, Ukraine in the mid1990s, Russia (bottom trawl), Norway (bottom trawl), Spain (MWT /BLL), Poland and Namibia (bottom trawl) in the late 1990s, and South Korea (midwater trawl) for 4 years from 2010 to 2013, respectively, 198 tonnes, 196 tonnes, 172 tonnes and 1.6tonnes. Historically the highest catches of the fish were recorded by Russia with 2,972 and 2,800 tons in 1977 and 1997 respectively, Poland 1,964 tonnes in 1995, and Norway 1,066 tons in 1998 in the SEAFO CA. Table 2a. Catches (tonnes) of Alfonsino (B. splendens) made by various countries. Flag State  Namibia  Namibia  Norway  Russia  Portugal  Ukraine  Korea  Fishing method  Bottom trawl  Bottom trawl  Bottom trawl  Bottom trawl  Bottom trawl  UNK  Midwater trawl  Management Area  B1  C0  C1  A1  UNK  UNK  UNK  B1  Catch details (t)  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  1976    N/F  N/F    252^{#}         1977    N/F  N/F    2972^{#}         1978    N/F  N/F    125^{#}         1993    N/F  N/F        172     1994    N/F  N/F            1995  1^{#}   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F          1996  368   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F      747     1997  208   N/F  N/F  836   2800     392     1998  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  1066   69^{§}         1999  1   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F    3^{§}       2000  <1   N/F  N/F  242     1^{§}       2001  1   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F    7^{§}       2002  0   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F    1^{§}       2003  0   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F    5^{§}       2004  6   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  210         2005  1   N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  54         2006  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  <1       2007  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2008  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2009  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2010  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  159  0  2011  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  165  0  2012  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  172  0  2013  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  13  0  2014  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2015  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2016  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2017  N/F  N/F  <1  <1  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2018  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2019  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F = No Fishing. Blank fields = No data available. UNK = Unknown. # = Values taken from the Japp (1999). § = Values from FAO. Ret.= Retained catch. Dis. = Discarded catch. Table 2b. Catches (tonnes) of Alfonsino (B. splendens) made by various countries. Nation  Spain  Poland  Cook Island  Mauritius  Cyprus  South Africa  Fishing method  Midwater trawl and Longlines  UNK  Bottom trawl  Bottom trawl  Bottom trawl  Bottom trawl  Management Area  UNK  UNK  UNK  UNK  UNK  B1  Catch details (t)  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  Ret.  Dis.  1976              1977              1978              1993              1994              1995    1964^{§}         60^{#}   1996            109^{#}   1997  186^{§}           124^{#}   1998  402^{§}             1999              2000              2001  2             2002              2003  2             2004  4     142   115   437     2005  72             2006  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2007  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2008  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2009  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2010  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2011  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2012  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2013  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2014  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2015  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2016  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2017  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2018  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  2019  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F  N/F = No Fishing. Blank fields = No data available. UNK = Unknown.# = Values taken from the Japp (1999). § = Values from FAO. Ret.= Retained catch. Dis. = Discarded catch. Assessment It should be recognized that the data available for assessment is extremely sparse and represents a short time series. The perception of the stock as described is based on only 3 years of catch and effort data. Length frequency distributions could not be derived based on the insufficient length samples submitted to the Secretariat. Catch and effort data per haul on Alfonsino were collected by Korean vessels for only 3 years from 2010 to 2012. These data, although short in series, can be used to get a perception of the trend in nominal CPUE. Data The data used to calculate CPUE of Alfonsino were derived from fishing hauls in which the total catch of Beryx splendens represented more than 80% of the total combined catch per set of P. richardsoni and Beryx splendens caught by Korean trawls around the Valdivia Bank. This criterion is used since the catches of these two species are negatively correlated, i.e. when one of these two species occurs in the haul the other is usually very low. In each haul the estimate of CPUE of Beryx splendens is represented as the ratio of total catch of the species by the haul duration time. Assessment Model Type: Others Nominal CPUE was used to derive a perception of the development of the fishery in the period 20102012. Length data and frequency distribution Data Using the data collected by Korean trawl fisheries between 2010 and 2013, the length frequency distributions were analysed (Table 3 and Fig. 7). The catch landing data in 2013 were not enough to represent the situation of the southern area of Division B1. The length of Alfonsino in the southern area of Division B1 was the largest with average 26.5 cm and 28.0 cm at the 3rd quartile, with two modes at 22 cm and 27 cm in 2011. In the southern area of Division B1 the length of the fish was also the largest in 2011 and reached about 50 cm fork length. No trend appeared in 2012 (MayJune) due to paucity of samples (23 samples). Overall length trends between the areas during 20122013 were asymmetric. The length of the species in the northern part was larger than that of southern part in 2012 and 2013. Table 3. Results of length composition of Alfonsino collected by Korean vessels in SEAFO CA (B1) (20102012).  2010  2011  2012 (5~6) 2012(11)  2013   South  North  South  North  South  North  South  North  South  North  No. of samples  200  841  174  593  514  23  77    97  5  Minimum length  19.0  17.0  20.0  15.0  17.0  26.0  24.0    17.0  25.0  Maximum length  42.0  47.0  50.0  48.0  34.0  35.0  39.0    31.0  34.0  Average length  25.8  24.8  26.5  27.8  24.8  31.0  31.5    23.7  27.4  Median length  25.0  24.0  25.0  28.0  25.0  32.0  32.0    22.0  26.0  1^{st}quartile length  23.0  22.0  23.0  25.0  23.0  30.0  29.0    21.0  25.0  3^{rd}quartile length  27.0  26.0  28.0  31.0  26.0  32.5  34.0    27.0  27.0   Figure 7. Fork length distribution of Alfonsino (Beryx splendens) by depth for 20102013.  Table 4. Summary of fork length distribution of Alfonsino (Beryx splendens) by depth for 20102013.  2010  2011  2012(5~6) 2012(11)   South  North  South  North  South  North  South  North  No. of Samples  841  200  174  593  514  23  77    Average Depth (m)  210.9  211.1  229.6  238.4  323.8  288.5  248.2    Average FL (cm)  25.8  24.8  26.5  27.8  24.8  31.0  31.5     Figure 8. The number of individuals of Alfonsino sampled per haul over the period 2010 to 2013 in the SEAFO CA. Data from Observer Reports submitted to SEAFO.  Table 5. Number of sets by year, minimum and maximum number of individuals per set and the number of individuals sampled during the period 2010 to 2013 in the SEAFO CA. Year  No. of Sets Observed  Mean Individuals  Min. Individuals  Max. Individuals  Mean sample size/tonnes  2010  7  17.429  10  25  0.92  2011  7  19.143  5  75  1.36  2012  29  7.345  1  16  0.06  2013  7  3.143  1  7  1.94  Lengthweight relationships Figure 9 shows the length and weight relationship of Alfonsino for 20102013. Two parameters of the lengthweight relationship were 0.022 for α and 3.010 for β of combined sex of Alfonsino.  Figure 9. Relationship between length and weight of Alfonsino (B. splendens) in the SEAFO CA for 20102013.  Age data and growth parameters The maximum observed age of Alfonsino in the Guinean Gulf was 20 years. The growth parameters of Alfonsino were estimated as K=0.097 year^1, Linf=48 cm, and t0=3.08 year^1 using the specimens from Guinean Gulf (LópezAbellán et al. 2008). Reproductive parameters The reproductive parameters of Alfonsino were analysed as follows. Spawning season was evaluated as the period from November to February (Nova Caledonia). Length at 1 ^{st} maturity was estimated as fork length 39.67 cm for females (95% c.i.=39.34, 40.02 cm) and 36.88 cm for males (95% c.i.=36.45, 37.36 cm) (Flores et al. 2012). Fecundity was calculated as 270,000–650,000 eggs (source: FishBase). The biological productivity of B. splendens is likely to be moderate to low in general (Anonymous, 2007). Alfonsinos are serial spawners and reproduce in the areas that they normally inhabit. Average size at sexual maturity appears to be about 30–34 cm (4–6 years old), and can vary between localities (González et al. 2003). The annual numbers and proportion of the fish by gonad maturity stage by Korean trawl fisheries during the period of 20102013 are presented in Table 6 and Figure 9. Time of spawning also varies markedly between seasons. The proportion of immature fishes was 99.4%, 91.4%, 98.6% and 97.1% in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The fish, which is in prespawning and spawning gonad stages, appeared from October indicating that the spawning season may start from sometime after October. To get more accurate reproduction results of Alfonsino in the SEAFO Area, there is a need to collect data for a few more years. Table 6. Annual number of fish by maturity stages of Alfonsino (B. splendens) in the SEAFO CA for 2010 to 2013. Year  Month  Maturity stage    Immature  Developing  Prespawning  Spawning  Spent  2010  Sep  882  66  6  0  0   Oct  33  6  0  0  0   Nov  0  20  0  0  0  2011  Jan  95  239  0  0  0   Sep  37  1  0  0  0   Oct  18  20  12  0  0   Nov  26  77  34  2  0  2012  May  16  7  0  0  0   Jun  452  32  0  0  0   Nov  29  40  3  5  0  2013  Oct  42  4  0  0  0   Nov  28  25  3  0  0   Figure 10. The proportion of maturity stage of Alfonsino in the SEAFO CA for 20102013. (1:immature, 2: developing, 3: prespawning, 4: spawning, and 5: spent).  Natural Mortality There is no available information and data in the SEAFO CA. Feeding and trophic relationships (including species interaction) There is no available information and data in the SEAFO CA. Tagging and migration No tagging and migration studies on Alfonsino have been done in the SEAFO CA. Others Results Reference Point No biological reference points could be determined, and the SC suggests using an empirical Harvest Control Rule (HCR) to regulate the fishery until the data situation is improved. A candidate HCR consists of the average catch of the last three years to which a 20% uncertainty cap is applied. ICES Harvest Control Rules, category 5: Data poor stocks (only landings data). Calculation of average catch for three years (20102012) as = (159+ 165+172)/3 =165 And calculation of the catch advise as = 0.8*165 = 132 t Overall Assessment Results The progression in CPUE over time showed marked variability and no clear trend as observed in figure 11.  Figure 11. Plot of nominal CPUE for 20102012.  Management Management unit: Yes Management Advice Considering that the TACs set for Alfonsino under CMTAC01 (2018) is reviewed every two years, and that the last review was done in 2018 for the period from 2019 – 2020. Alfonsino is a seamountassociated species that form aggregations, and the experience worldwide is that serial depletion of aggregations at different seamounts can happen. In the recent fisheries for the species in SEAFO the fishery was concentrated on a single seamount summit, the Valdivia Bank, where it was mainly a bycatch in the target fishery for pelagic armourhead. The only information available from 2015 is the limited observations from the RV Dr Fridtjof Nansen survey noting that only scattered specimens of the species occurred in the main fishing area. It is also recognized that the last three year’s interruption in the exploitation has provided potential for recovery of the resource in the main fishing area on Valdivia Bank. There is however not enough information from any source to determine with certainty whether recovery has happened or not happened. The SC however recognized that without future fishery data nor survey information the basis for providing scientific advice will deteriorate. The SC therefore discussed what advisory option would be most appropriate while maintaining the potential for data provision from a fishery. It must also be taken into account that the alfonsino is mainly a bycatch and that the catches will depend on the activity level in the target fishery for armourhead. The SC considered the TAC level advised in 2013 as precautionary at that time. Considering no fishing pressures, in the last 6 years and the development of the resource, the SC recommends a TAC of 200 tonnes (status quo) for the SEAFO CA, of which a maximum of 132 tonnes may be taken in Division B1. 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