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Alfonsino - South East Atlantic
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
Stock status report 2014
Alfonsino - South East Atlantic
Fact Sheet Citation  
Alfonsino
Owned bySouth East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (SEAFO) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
 
Species:
FAO Names: en - Splendid alfonsino, fr - Béryx long, es - Alfonsino besugo, ar - عُنقُد طويل, zh - 红金眼鲷
Geographic extent of Alfonsino - South East Atlantic
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: No        Spatial Scale: Regional
Management unit: Yes        Reference year: 2013
 
 
Biological State and Trend
State & Trend Descriptors
FIRMS
Exploitation rateUncertain/Not assessed
Abundance levelUncertain/Not assessed
History
 

The Korean trawl fishery in the SEAFO CA started in 2010 using trawl nets by two fishing vessels, F/V Adventure and F/V Dongsan Ho. The gear used for fishing operations in the SEAFO Convention Area is the mid-water KITE gear, which consists of ropes, whose upper part has kites and lower part has chains. The height of the net’s gate is approximately 50 m, and the total length is around 280 m.
Habitat and Biology
Climatic zone: Temperate.   Bottom type: Unspecified.   Depth zone: Slope (200 m - 1000 m).   Horizontal distribution: Oceanic.   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  


Alfonsino has a global distribution and has been reported from all tropical and temperate oceans (excluding from the northeast Pacific and Mediterranean Sea) between latitudes of about 65° N and 43° S. It occurs from depths of about 25 m to at least 1300 m (Busakhin 1982). In the Atlantic Ocean the species occurs at both at western (Gulf of Maine to the Gulf of Mexico) and eastern Atlantic (off south Western Europe and the Canary Islands to South Africa) (Fig. 1). This species is benthopelagic: adults inhabit the outer shelf (180 m) and slope to at least 1,300 m depth, probably moving further from the bottom at night but ascending to feed in midwater during the night; often found over seamounts and underwater ridges. There is no information on migration behaviour.


Figure 1 The predicted/potential distribution of Alfonsino (B. splendens) based on habitat suitability considerations (FishBase).
Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: Straddling between High Seas and EEZ


During the period from 2010 to 2011 Korean trawl vessels (Dongsan Ho and/or Adventure) caught Alfonsino mainly in the northern part and in the southern part of Division B1 in 2012 and 2013 (Fig. 2-5). It was possible to distinguish two or three main areas or fishing grounds in Division B1.


Table 1 The total number of sets from which alfonsino catches were derived for the period 2010-2013.
2010 2011 2012 2013
19 15 28 7
Figure 2 Annual estimated catch (1.6 tonnes) of Alfonsino in 2013 derived from the Observer Reports aggregated to 100km diameter rectangle.


Figure 3 Annual estimated catch of Alfonsino in 2012 derived from the Observer Reports aggregated to 100km diameter rectangle.


Figure 4 Annual estimated catch of Alfonsino in 2011 derived from the Observer Reports aggregated to 100km diameter hexagonal cells.
Figure 5 Annual estimated catch of Alfonsino in 2010 derived from the Observer Reports aggregated to 100km diameter rectangle hexagonal cells.
Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: No
Exploitation
 

Table 2 presents Alfonsino catches by country, as well as fishing gear and the divisions in which the catch was taken. Historically, the main fishing countries worked in the SEAFO CA included Russia (bottom trawl) in the late 1970s, Ukraine in the mid-1990s, Russia (bottom trawl), Norway (bottom trawl), Spain (MWT /BLL), Poland and Namibia (bottom trawl) in the late 1990s. In recent years South Korea conducted a trawl fishery for 4 years and the reported landings during 2010 to 2013 were, 198 tonnes, 196 tonnes, 172 tonnes and 1.6 tonnes, respectively. Historically the highest catches of the fish were recorded by Russia with 2,972 and 2,800 tons in 1977 and 1997 respectively, Poland 1,964 tonnes in 1995, and Norway 1,066 tonnes in 1998.


Table 2a Catches (tonnes) of Alfonsino (B. splendens) made by various countries.

Flag State
Namibia Norway Russia Portugal Ukraine Korea
Fishing method Bottom trawl Bottom trawl Bottom trawl Bottom trawl UNK Mid-water trawl
Management Area B1 A1 UNK UNK UNK B1
Catch details (t) Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis.
1976         252#              
1977         2972#              
1978         125#              
1993                 172§      
1994                        
1995 1#   N/F N/F                
1996 368#   N/F N/F         747§      
1997 208#   836   2800#       392§      
1998 N/F N/F 1066   69§              
1999 1   N/F N/F     3§          
2000 <1   242       1§          
2001 1   N/F N/F     7§          
2002 0   N/F N/F     1§          
2003 0   N/F N/F     5§          
2004 6   N/F N/F 210              
2005 1   N/F N/F 54              
2006 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F <1          
2007 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2008 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2009 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2010 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F 159 0
2011 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F 165 0
2012 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F 172 0
2013 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F 13 0
2014* N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F

* Provisional (Aug 2014) N/F = No Fishing. Blank fields = No data available. UNK = Unknown. # = Values taken from the Japp (1999). § = Values from FAO. Ret.= Retained catch. Dis. = Discarded catch






Table 2b Catches (tonnes) of Alfonsino (B. splendens) made by various countries.
Nation Spain Poland Cook Island Mauritius Cyprus South Africa
Fishing method Mid-water trawl and Longlines UNK Bottom trawl Bottom trawl Bottom trawl Bottom trawl
Management Area UNK UNK UNK UNK UNK B1
Catch details (t) Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis. Ret. Dis.
1976                        
1977                        
1978                        
1993                        
1994                        
1995     1964§               60#  
1996                     109#  
1997 186§                   124#  
1998 402§                      
1999                        
2000                        
2001 2                      
2002                        
2003 2                      
2004 4       142   115   437      
2005 72                      
2006 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2007 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2008 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2009 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2010 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2011 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2012 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2013 N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F
2014* N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F N/F

* Provisional (Aug 2014) N/F = No Fishing. Blank fields = No data available. UNK = Unknown.# = Values taken from the Japp (1999). § = Values from FAO. Ret.= Retained catch. Dis. = Discarded catch.


Assessment
 

It should be recognized that the data available for assessment is extremely sparse and represents a short time series. The perception of the stock as described is based on only 3 years (2010-2012) of catch and effort data. Catch and effort data for 2013 was not used in the assessment of the nominal CPUE due to an incomplete fishing season. Length frequency distributions could not be derived based on the insufficient length samples submitted to the Secretariat.



Catch and effort data per haul on Alfonsino were collected by Korean vessels for only 4 years from 2010 to 2013, however, only 2011-2012 were used for assessment due to an incomplete fishing season for 2013. These data, although short in series, could be used to get a perception of the trend in nominal CPUE.
Data

The data used to calculate CPUE of Alfonsino were derived from fishing hauls in which the total catch of Beryx splendens represented more than 80% of the total combined catch per set of P. richardsoni and Beryx splendens caught by Korean trawls around the Valdivia Bank. This criterion is used since the catches of these two species are negatively correlated, i.e. when one of these two species occurs in the haul the other is usually very low.

In each haul the estimate of CPUE of Beryx splendens is represented as the ratio of total catch of the species by the haul duration time.
Assessment Model
Type:  Others

Nominal CPUE was used to derive a perception of the development of the fishery in the period 2010-2012.
Assumption

The SC explored the possibility of applying a local depletion model (DeLury, 1947; Leslie and Davis, 1939). It was decided, however, not to pursue this option as the data did not satisfy the assumptions of the method.
Length data and frequency distribution
Data

Using the data collected by Korean trawl fisheries between 2010 and 2013, the length frequency distributions were analysed (Table 3). In 2013 the length sampling was insufficient.

In 2011 the length of Alfonsino in the southern area of Division B1 was the largest with average 26.5 cm and 28.0 cm at the 3rd quartile, with two modes at 22 cm and 27 cm. In the southern area of Division B1 the length of the fish was also the largest in 2011 and reached about 50 cm fork length. No trend appeared in 2012 (May-June) due to paucity of samples (23 samples). The length of the species in the northern part was larger than that of southern part of B1 in 2012.

Females tend to have a higher von Bertalanffy Linf value than males, but growth appears relatively similar between areas (i.e., East and West Atlantic, and North and South Pacific) (Lehodey & Grandperrin 1996, Rico et al. 2001, Gili et al., 2002).


Table 3 Results of length composition of Alfonsino collected by Korean vessels in Division B1 (2010-2012).
  2010 2011 2012 (5~6) 2012(11)
  South North South North South North South North
No. of samples 200 841 174 593 514 23 77 -
Minimum length 19.0 17.0 20.0 15.0 17.0 26.0 24.0 -
Maximum length 42.0 47.0 50.0 48.0 34.0 35.0 39.0 -
Average length 25.8 24.8 26.5 27.8 24.8 31.0 31.5 -
Median length 25.0 24.0 25.0 28.0 25.0 32.0 32.0 -
1stquartile length 23.0 22.0 23.0 25.0 23.0 30.0 29.0 -
3rdquartile length 27.0 26.0 28.0 31.0 26.0 32.5 34.0 -


Table 4 Summary of fork length distribution of Alfonsino (Beryx splendens) by depth for 2010-2013.
  2010 2011 2012(5~6) 2012(11)
  South North South North South North South North
No. of Samples 841 200 174 593 514 23 77 -
Average Depth (m) 210.9 211.1 229.6 238.4 323.8 288.5 248.2 -
Average FL (cm) 25.8 24.8 26.5 27.8 24.8 31.0 31.5 -


Figure 10 The number of individuals of Alfonsino sampled per haul over the period 2010 to 2013 in the SEAFO CA. Data from Observer Reports submitted to SEAFO.


Table 5 Number of sets by year, minimum and maximum number of individuals per set and the number of individuals sampled during the period 2010 to 2013 in the SEAFO CA.
Year No. of Sets Observed Mean Individuals Min. Individuals Max. Individuals Mean sample size/tonnes
2010 7 17.429 10 25 0.92
2011 7 19.143 5 75 1.36
2012 29 7.345 1 16 0.06
2013 7 3.143 1 7 1.94


Length-weight relationships
Data

Figure 11 shows the length and weight relationship of Alfonsino for 2010-2013. Two parameters of the length-weight relationship were 0.022 for α and 3.010 for β of combined sex of Alfonsino.


Figure 11 Relationship between length and weight of Alfonsino (B. splendens) in the SEAFO CA for 2010 - 2013.
Age data and growth parameters
Assumption

The maximum observed age of Alfonsino in the Guinean Gulf was 20 years. The species is known to aggregate and thus is vulnerable to overfishing.



The growth parameters of Alfonsino were estimated as K=0.097 year^-1, Linf=48 cm, and t0=-3.08 year^-1 using the specimens from Guinean Gulf (López-Abellán et al. 2008).


Data



The annual numbers and proportion of the fish by gonad maturity stage by Korean trawl fisheries during the period of 2010 - 2013 are presented in Table 6 and Figure 13. The proportion of immature fishes was 99.4%, 91.4%, 98.6% and 97.1% in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The fish, which is in pre-spawning and spawning gonad stages, appeared from October indicating that the spawning season may start from sometime after October. To get more accurate reproduction results of alfonsino in the SEAFO Area, there is a need to collect data for a few more years.


Table 6 Annual number of fish by maturity stages of Alfonsino (B. splendens) in the SEAFO CA for 2010 to 2013.
Year Month Maturity stage
    Immature Developing Pre-spawning Spawning Spent
2010 Sep 882 66 6 0 0
  Oct 33 6 0 0 0
  Nov 0 20 0 0 0
2011 Jan 95 239 0 0 0
  Sep 37 1 0 0 0
  Oct 18 20 12 0 0
  Nov 26 77 34 2 0
2012 May 16 7 0 0 0
  Jun 452 32 0 0 0
  Nov 29 40 3 5 0
2013 Oct 42 4 0 0 0
  Nov 28 25 3 0 0


Figure 12 The proportion of maturity stage of Alfonsino in the SEAFO CA for 2010-2013. (1:immature, 2: developing, 3: pre-spawning, 4: spawning, and 5: spent)
Results
Reference Point
 

No biological reference points could be determined and the SC suggest to use an empirical Harvest Control Rule (HCR) to regulate the fishery until the data situation is improved. A candidate HCR consists of the average catch of the last three years to which a 20% uncertainty cap is applied.

ICES Harvest Control Rules, Category 5: Data poor stocks (only landings data). Calculation of average catch for three years (2010- 2012) as Cy-1

And calculation of the catch advise for 2015 as:
Overall Assessment Results

The progression in CPUE over time showed marked variability and no clear trend as observed in figure 13.


Figure 13 Plot of nominal CPUE for 2010-2012.


Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Advice

In 2012 the Commission adopted a TAC of 200t the SEAFO CA for 2013 and 2014 (CM 28/14).



In accordance with the proposed HCR, using the average catch from 2010-2012, the recommended TAC is 132 tons for the Division B1 for 2015-2016. Considering the possibility that Alfonsino occurs outside B1 the SC maintains its recommendation from 2012 for a TAC for the entire SEAFO CA of 200 tons of which a maximum of 132 tons may be taken in B1.
Source of information
 
SEAFO “Conservation Measure 28/14: on Total Allowable Catches and related conditions for Patagonian Toothfish, and Deep-SeaRed Crab for 2015, Alfonsino, Orange Roughy and Pelagic Armourhead for 2015 & 2016 in the SEAFO Convention Area.” 2014 Click to openhttp://www.seafo.org/media/0d288d16-8c63-40f9-8d43-1f53515a5bd5/SEAFOweb/CM/open/eng/CM28-14_pdf
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