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Red Seabream - Northeast Atlantic
Marine Resource  Observation Sheet
ICES Advice 2009
Red Seabream - Northeast Atlantic
Fact Sheet Citation  
Red seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo)
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
 
Species:
FAO Names: en - Blackspot(=red) seabream, fr - Dorade rose, es - Besugo, ar - مرجان وردي, zh - 黑斑小鲷, ru - Пагель пятнистый
Geographic extent of Red Seabream - Northeast Atlantic
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Management unit: Yes        Reference year: 2008
 
 
Biological State and Trend
State & Trend Descriptors
PartnerFIRMS
Exploitation rateUndefinedUncertain/Not assessed
Abundance levelUndefinedUncertain/Not assessed

ICES has established three different management units for this species:

  • Areas VI, VII, and VIII;
  • Area IX; and
  • Area X (Azores region).


This management unit division is supported by information on genetics and tagging.

Red seabream in VI, VII, and VIII appears to be severely depleted based on historical catches.

Red seabream in Subarea IX is depleted and there is no evidence of a significant recovery as a result of the local recovery plan in Spanish waters of the Strait of Gibraltar.

The status in Subarea X is uncertain but there are signs of increases in indices of abundance from surveys. The cpue in the fishery is stable. It is possible that sequential depletion of local populations may occur and this may contribute to the stability of the commercial cpue series.
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Slope (200 m - 1000 m).   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: Straddling between High Seas and EEZ

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Exploitation
 

Factors affecting the fisheries and the stock

Regulations and their effects

The TAC for Areas VI, VII, and VIII is currently 298 t. Landings have been below 300 t since 1991, averaging about 200 t over the last decade.

In Subarea IX, there is an EU TAC of 1080 t. This is more than double the total landings of the Subarea and so does not seem a relevant constraint. A Regional Recovery Plan for P. bogaraveo relating to the Spanish fishery in the Strait of Gibraltar area has been implemented by the Regional Government of Andalucía for 2003–2008. Technical measures adopted in this plan include the closure of the fishing season for two-and-half months (15th January–31st March), a minimum landing size (33 cm total length), authorized vessels list, hook size, maximum hooks per line (100), maximum number of lines per boat (30), maximum number of automatic machines for hauling per boat (3), and restricted ports for landing (only Tarifa and Algeciras).

In Subarea X multispecies and multigear fisheries are operating in an area regarded as vulnerable and which is protected by EU regulations banning bottom trawls and bottom gillnets. Local technical regulations are also in force (minimum landing size, hook size regulation, licensing, size restrictions by zone for gears and vessels, and a quota system by islands and vessel).

A TAC for Area X is currently set at 1136 t. Landings are at the level of the TAC.

Changes in fishing technology and fishing patterns

In Subareas VI, VII, and VIII red seabream is mostly a bycatch in longline and trawl fisheries.

There are directed handline and longline fisheries in Subarea IX.

Red seabream have been caught in hook and line fisheries off the Azores since the 16th Century. There are now directed artisanal handline as well as longline fisheries in Area Xa2. Historically, improvements in fishing technology have taken place in the directed handline and longline fisheries. These include the introduction of bottom longlines and bigger fishing vessels. The resulting improvement on fishing efficiency has not been quantified.
Assessment
 
Assessment Model
Methodology

Scientific basis

Data and methods

For Subareas VI, VII, and VIII the only information available is landings (Table 9.4.19.2).

In Subarea IX, landings (Table 9.4.19.3) and lpue are available. An exploratory separable VPA was attempted using available catch-at-age data. The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) and fishing mortality (F) estimates appear consistent with the fishery and survey information.

In Subarea X, landings (Table 9.4.19.4), standardized commercial cpue, and longline survey data were used (Figure 9.4.19.3). Figure 9.4.19.4 shows total landings for Area Xa2 (Azores).
Overall Assessment Results


Figure 9.4.19.1. Red seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo). Long-term trends in landings in the North Atlantic.


Figure 9.4.19.2. Red seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo). Landings by management unit.


Figure 9.4.19.3. Red seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo). Annual standardized cpue in number per thousand hooks and 95% confidence intervals for the Azores bottom longline blackspot seabream (ICES Area Xa2).


Figure 9.4.19.4. Red seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo) historical landings from the Azores (ICES Area Xa2).


Table 9.4.19.1. Red seabream (working group estimates) landings by management unit (tonnes).
  VI,VII,VIII IX X
1988 389 689 637
1989 461 676 924
1990 446 594 889
1991 257 532 874
1992 164 797 1090
1993 197 1000 830
1994 141 1004 989
1995 121 829 1115
1996 52 978 1052
1997 81 1011 1012
1998 121 877 1119
1999 150 543 1222
2000 237 421 924
2001 237 374 1034
2002 181 359 1193
2003 148 471 1068
2004 252 480 1075
2005 220 494 1113
2006 195 544 958
2007 298 586 1070


Table 9.4.19.2. Red seabream (working group estimates) landings in VI, VII, and VIII (tonnes). RED (=BLACKSPOT) SEABREAM (Pagellus bogaraveo) VI and VII
Year France* Ireland Spain E & W Ch. Islands TOTAL
1988 52 0 47 153 0 252
1989 44 0 69 76 0 189
1990 22 3 73 36 0 134
1991 13 10 30 56 14 123
1992 6 16 18 0 0 40
1993 5 7 10 0 0 22
1994 0 0 9 0 1 10
1995 0 6 5 0 0 11
1996 0 4 24 1 0 29
1997 0 20 0 36   56
1998 0 4 7 6   17
1999 4 8 0 15   27
2000 8 n.a. 3 13   24
2001 3 11 2 37   53
2002 8 0 9 13   30
2003 26 0 7 20   53
2004 64   4 18   86
2005 59   4 7   70
2006 72 0 8 19   98
2007 73 0 8 57   138


RED (=BLACKSPOT) SEABREAM (Pagellus bogaraveo) VIII
Year France* Spain England (1) TOTAL
1988 37 91 9 137
1989 31 234 7 272
1990 15 280 17 312
1991 10 124 0 134
1992 5 119 0 124
1993 3 172 0 175
1994 0 131 0 131
1995 0 110 0 110
1996 0 23 0 23
1997 18 7 0 25
1998 18 86 0 104
1999 40 84 0 124
2000 24 189 0 213
2001 16 168 0 184
2002 41 111 0 152
2003 12 83 0 95
2004 75 82 8 166
2005 60 90 0 150
2006 40 57 0 97
2007 66 94 0 160
(1) in 2005 England & Wales.* updated since 1999.


RED (=BLACKSPOT) SEABREAM (Pagellus bogaraveo) in VI, VII, VIII, XII ICES Subareas and CECAF
Year VI+VII* VIII* TOTAL
1988 252 137 389
1989 189 272 461
1990 134 312 446
1991 123 134 257
1992 40 124 164
1993 22 175 197
1994 10 131 141
1995 11 110 121
1996 29 23 52
1997 56 25 81
1998 17 104 121
1999 27 124 150
2000 24 213 237
2001 53 184 237
2002 30 152 181
2003 53 95 148
2004 86 166 252
2005 70 150 220
2006 98 97 195
2007 138 160 298
* updated since 1999.


Table 9.4.19.3. Red seabream (working group estimates) landings in Area IX (tonnes). RED (=BLACKSPOT) SEABREAM (Pagellus bogaraveo) IX
Year Portugal Spain TOTAL
1988 370 319 689
1989 260 416 676
1990 166 428 594
1991 109 423 532
1992 166 631 797
1993 235 765 1000
1994 150 854 1004
1995 204 625 829
1996 209 769 978
1997 203 808 1011
1998 357 520 877
1999 265 278 543
2000 83 338 421
2001 97 277 374
2002 111 248 359
2003 142 329 471
2004 183 297 480
2005 129 365 494
2006 104 440 544
2007 185 401 586
* Preliminary.


Table 9.4.19.4. Red seabream (Working Group estimates) landings in Area X (tonnes). RED (=BLACKSPOT) SEABREAM (Pagellus bogaraveo) X
Year Azores (Xa2) Total
1988 637 637
1989 924 924
1990 889 889
1991 874 874
1992 1090 1090
1993 830 830
1994 989 989
1995 1115 1115
1996 1052 1052
1997 1012 1012
1998 1119 1119
1999 1222 1222
2000 924 924
2001 1034 1034
2002 1193 1193
2003 1068 1068
2004 1075 1075
2005 1113 1113
2006 958 958
2007 1070 1070

Reference Point
 

No reference points have been defined for red seabream.
Scientific Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries

Catches in Subareas VI, VII, and VIII have been very low for the last 20 years and ICES recommends that the fishery should not be allowed to expand unless it can be shown that it is sustainable.

ICES recommends that catches in Areas IXa and Xa should be constrained to recent average catches (2003–2007) of 500 t in Area IXa and 1050 t in Area Xa and to collect information that can be used to evaluate a long-term sustainable level of exploitation.
Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Objectives

A local recovery plan is in force in the Strait of Gibraltar (IXa). There are no management objectives for red seabream in any of the other management units.
Management Advice

Management considerations

Red seabream have a low productivity and they change sex as they age, starting as males and becoming females between ages 4 and 6. Hermaphroditic species are particularly susceptible to overexploitation. Measures to ensure balanced exploitation between younger fish (males) and older fish (females) are essential. Minimum landing sizes in all areas should be set to 35 cm to conserve the proportion of males in the populations. If a minimum landing size for this species is to be effective in reducing mortality on males, this would imply that either the gear or the spatial distribution of the fishery needs to be adapted so that small (male) fish are not caught. If these adaptations cannot be made to avoid the capture of small fish, then the effect of a minimum landing size would depend on the survivorship of discarded fish. This survivorship of red seabream discards is unknown.

In Subarea X, more detailed information of the spatial and temporal distribution of catches is required so that areas which may show evidence of sequential depletion can be better protected.
Source of information
 
ICES. 2009. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009.
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