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Horse mackerel - West European Basin and Norwegian Sea, 2008
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
ICES Advice 2009
Horse mackerel - West European Basin and Norwegian Sea, 2008
Fact Sheet Citation  
Western horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa,VIIa-c, e-k, VIIIa,b,d,e)
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
 
Species:
FAO Names: en - Atlantic horse mackerel, fr - Chinchard d'Europe, es - Jurel, ru - Ставрида обыкновенная
Geographic extent of Horse mackerel - West European Basin and Norwegian Sea
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Management unit: Yes
 
 
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m).   Vertical distribution: Pelagic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: Straddling between High Seas and EEZ

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Exploitation
 

Factors affecting the fisheries and the stock

Changes in fishing technology and fishing patterns

Western horse mackerel are taken in a variety of fisheries exploiting juvenile fish for the human consumption market (with smaller-size fish mostly for the Japanese market), and large fish for human consumption (mostly for the African market) or for industrial purposes.

The juvenile fishery in the Western stock distribution area has mainly occurred in Divisions VIIe–h and VIIIa–d. After 1993, the juvenile fishery expanded resulting in a change in the exploitation pattern of the stock. The percentage of catch (in weight) in the juvenile areas increased gradually from about 40% in 1997 to about 65% in 2003, but declined to 40% in 2005. Since 2005, there has been no obvious change in fishing area or exploitation pattern.

Impacts of the environment on the fish stock

Research over the last decade has shown strong links between horse mackerel migration into northern areas and water mass transport patterns in the Northeast Atlantic (ICES, 2007).
Assessment
 
Assessment Model
Methodology

Scientific basis

Data and methods

The triennial horse mackerel egg survey provides an index of SSB which together with the catches form the basis for the assessment of the stock.

Uncertainties in assessment and forecast

The information available for Western horse mackerel remains sparse, and concerns about the underlying data remain, particularly with regard to the reliability of age determination for the catch-at-age data, and the interpretation of fecundity estimates (as horse mackerel are regarded indeterminate spawners). In addition, the only fishery-independent information for this stock are measures of egg production from surveys held every three years.

As in previous years and despite the data sampling regulation for EU countries, some countries with major catches did not carry out biological sampling programmes. Discard information is also incomplete for this stock.

Comparison with previous assessment and advice

The perception of historical stock trends is consistent with last year’s assessment. The basis for the advice is the same.
Overall Assessment Results


Figure 9.4.3.1. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c,e–k, and VIIIa–e (Western stock). Summary of stock assessment: landings, fishing mortality, recruitment, and SSB.


Figure 9.4.3.2. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c,e–k, and VIIIa–e (Western stock). Stock–recruitment and precautionary approach plots.


Figure 9.4.3.3. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c,e–k, and VIIIa–e (Western stock). Comparison of currents assessments with previous assessments.


Country 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
Denmark - - - - - - - 39
France - - - - 1 1 -2 -2
Germany, Fed.Rep - + - - - - - -
Norway - - - 412 22 78 214 3,272
USSR - - - - - - - -
Total - + - 412 23 79 214 3,311


  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
Faroe Islands - - 9643 1,115 9,1573 1,068 - 950
Denmark - - - - - - - 200
France -2 - - - - - 55 -
Germany, Fed. Rep. 64 12 + - - - - -
Norway 6,285 4,770 9,135 3,200 4,300 2,100 4 11,300
USSR / Russia (1992 -) 469 27 1,298 172 - - 700 1,633
UK (England + Wales) - - 17   - - - -
Total 6,818 4,809 11,414 4,487 13,457 3,168 759 14,083


  1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Faroe Islands 1,598 7993 1883 1323 2503 -    
Denmark - - 1,7553     -    
France - - -     -    
Germany - - -     -    
Norway 887 1,170 234 2,304 841 44 1,321 22
Russia 881 648 345 121 843 16 3 2
UK (England + Wales) - - -     -    
Estonia - - 22          
Total 3,366 2,617 2,544 2557 1175 60 1,324 24


Table 9.4.3.2. Horse mackerel general. Catches (t) in Subarea II. (Data as submitted by Working Group members).
  2004 2005 2006 2007 20081
Faroe Islands - - 3 - -
Denmark - - - - -
France - - - - -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3664

-

-

Norway 42 176 27 - 572
Russia          
UK (England + Wales) - - - - -
Estonia - - - - -
Total 42 176 30 366 572

1Preliminary.

2Included in Subarea IV.

3Includes catches in Div. Vb.

4Taken in Div. Vb



Country 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

Faroe Islands

, Fed.Rep.

Ireland

Netherlands

Norway2

Poland

Sweden

UK (Engl. + )

()

8

199

260

292

+

1,161

101

119

-

-

11

-

-

34

3,576

-

421

139

412

355

2,292

-

-

15

-

-

7

1,612

-

567

30

-

559

7

-

-

6

-

-

55

1,590

-

366

52

-

2,0293

322

2

-

4

-

-

20

23,730

-

827

+

-

824

3

94

-

-

3

489

13

22,495

-

298

+

-

1603

203

-

-

71

998

-

13

18,652

-

2312

-

-

6003

776

-

2

3

531

-

9

7,290

-

1892

3

-

8504

11,7284

-

-

339

487

-

10

20,323

-

7842

153

-

1,0603

34,4254

-

-

373

5,749

-

Total 2,151 7,253 2,788 4,420 25,987 24,238 20,808 20,895 62,877


Country 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Faroe Islands

, Fed.Rep.

Poland

Sweden

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (N. Ireland)

UK (Scotland)

/ (1992 -)

Unallocated + discards

10

23,329

-

-

248

506

-

14,172

84,161

-

-

10

-

2,093

-

12,4824

13

20,605

-

942

220

2,4695

687

1,970

117,903

-

102

10

-

458

-

-3174

-

6,982

-

340

174

5,995

2,657

3,852

50,000

-

953

132

350

7,309

-

-7504

+

7,755

293

-

162

2,801

2,600

3,000

96,000

-

800

4

-

996

-2786

74

6,120

-

360

302

1,570

4,086

2,470

126,800

-

697

115

-

1,059

-3,270

57

3,921

275

1,014

415

1,329

94,000

-

2,087

389

7,582

1,511

51

2,432

17

-

-

1,600

220

5,285

84,747

-

-

478

-

3,650

-28

28

1,433

-

-

-

7

1,100

6,205

14,639

-

95

40

-

2,442

136

-

648

-

296

-

7,603

8,152

37,778

45,314

-

232

242

-

10,511

-31,615

Total 112,047 145,062 77,904 114,133 140,383 112,580 98,452 26,125 79,161


Country 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 20061

Faroe Islands

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (Scotland)

Unallocated+discards

19

2,048

22

28

379

4,620

-

3,811

13,129

-

3,411

2

3,041

737

21

8,006

-

908

60

4,071

404

3,610

44,344

-

1,957

11

1,658

-325

19

4,409

-

24

49

3,115

103

3,382

1,246

2

1,141

15

3,465

14613

19

2,288

-

48

230

375

4,685

7,948

-

119

317

3,161

649

1,004

1,393

699

-

2,671

72

6,612

35,368

-

575

1,191

255

-149

5

3,774

809

392

3,048

93

17,354

20,493

-

1,074

1,192

1

-14,009

4

8,735

174

4,905

379

21,418

10,709

665

2,552

1

-19,103

6

4,258

35

3,876

1,811

753

24,679

24,937

239

1,778

22

-21,830

3

1,343

2,380

965

2,077

2,354

20,984

27,200

491

423

314

-19,623

Total 31,247 64,725 31583 19,839 49,691 34,226 30,435 40,564 38,911


Table 9.4.3.3. Horse mackerel general. Catches (t) in North Sea Subarea IV and Skagerrak Division IIIa by country. (Data submitted by Working Group members). Catches partly concern the North Sea horse mackerel.
Country 2007 20081              

Belgium

Faroe Islands

France

Germany, Fed.Rep.

Ireland

Netherlands

Lithuania

Norway

Sweden

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (Scotland)

Unallocated +discards

5

329

3

457

93

652

20,027

98

5.423

130

2,966

626

-14,403

2

59

55

943

1,167

1,186

9,400

- 11,652

45

-

20

-9,151

             
Total 16,407 15,377              
1-Preliminary.


Country 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

Denmark

Faroe Islands

France

Germany, Fed. Rep.

Ireland

Netherlands

Norway

Spain

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (N. Ireland)

UK (Scotland)

USSR

Unallocated + disc.

734

-

45

5,550

-

2,385

-

-

9

1

-

341

-

454

10,212

-

100

5

-

5

17

-

2,785

1,248

4

2,113

-

50

-

-

+

83

-

7

-

10

4,146 15,086

94

-

-

38

-

-

-

14

130

13,858

17,500

-

-

+

214

-

-

4,014

13

191

27,102

18,450

996

-

1,427

-

-19,168

-

1,992

12

354

28,125

3,450

83

-2

198

-

138

-

-13,897

769

4,4503

20

174

29,743

5,750

75

-2

404

-

1,027

-

-7,255

1,655

4,0003

10

615

27,872

3,340

41

-2

475

-

7,834

-

-

Total 8,724 11,134 6,283 19,381 31,716 33,025 20,455 35,157 45,842


Country 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Denmark

Faroe Islands

France

Germany, Fed. Rep.

Ireland

Netherlands

Norway

Spain

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (N.Ireland)

UK (Scotland)

USSR/Russia (1992-)

Unallocated + disc.

973

3,059

2

1,162

19,493

1,907

-

-2

44

-

1,737

-

6,493

615

628

17

2,474

15,911

660

-

-2

145

-

267

44

143

-

255

4

2,500

24,766

3,369

-

1

1,229

1,970

1,640

-

-1,278

42

-

3

6,281

32,994

2,150

-

3

577

273

86

-

-1,940

-

820

+

10,023

44,802

590

-

-

144

-

4,523

-

-6,9604

294

80

-

1,430

65,564

341

-

-

109

-

1,760

-

-51

106

-

-

1,368

120,124

2,326

-

-

208

-

789

-

-41,326

114

-

-

943

87,872

572

-

-

612

-

2,669

-

-11,523

780

-

52

229

22,474

498

-

-

56

767

14,452

-

837

Total 34,870 20,904 34,456 40,469 53,942 69,527 83,595 81,259 40,145


Table 9.4.3.4. Horse mackerel general. Catches (t) in Subarea VI by country. (Data submitted by Working Group members).
Country 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Denmark

Faroe Islands

France

Germany

Ireland

Lithuania

Netherlands

Spain

UK (Engl.+Wales)

UK (N.Ireland)

UK (Scotland)

Unallocated+disc.

-

-

221

414

21,608

885

-

10

1,132

10,447

98

-

-

25,007

1,031

31,736

1,139

-

344

-

4,544

1,507

-

-

-

209

15,843

687

-

41

-

1,839

2,038

-

-

428

265

20,162

600

-

91

3,111

-21

-

-

55

149

12,341

450

-

-

1,192

3

-

-

209

1,337

20,915

847

-

46

453

-553

-

-

172

1,413

15,702

3,701

-

5

377

559

-

-

41

1,958

12,395

6,039

-

52

210

62

1,298

-

-

411

1,025

9,780

2,822

1,892

-

-

82

43

-304

Total 34,815 65,308 20,657 24,636 14,190 23,254 21,929 22,055 15,751

Country

2007

20081

             

Denmark

Faroe Islands

France

Germany

Ireland

Lithuania

Netherlands

Norway

Russia

Spain

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (Scotland)

Unallocated+discards

-

-

-

1,835

20,341

80

2,177

2

-

-

232

38

1,474

26,279

-

573

74

5,097

18,786

641

3,904

20

-

-

-

588

-3,781

25,902

             

1Preliminary. 2Included in Subarea VII.,

3Includes Divisions IIIa, IVa,b and VIb. 4Includes a negative unallocated catch of -7000 t.



Country 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

Belgium

Denmark

France

Germany, Fed.Rep.

Ireland

Netherlands

Norway

Spain

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (Scotland)

USSR

-

5,045

1,983

2,289

-

23,002

394

50

12,933

1

-

1

3,099

2,800

1,079

16

25,000

-

234

2,520

-

-

1

877

2,314

12

-

27,5002

-

104

2,670

-

-

-

993

1,834

1,977

-

34,350

-

142

1,230

-

-

-

732

2,387

228

65

38,700

-

560

279

1

-

+

1,4772

1,881

-

100

33,550

-

275

1,630

1

120

+

30,4082

3,801

5

703

40,750

-

137

1,824

+

-

2

27,368

2,197

374

15

69,400

-

148

1,228

2

-

-

33,202

1,523

4,705

481

43,560

-

150

3,759

2,873

-

Total 45,697 34,749 33,478 40,526 42,952 39,034 77,628 100,734 90,253


Country 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Faroe Islands

Belgium

Denmark

France

Germany, Fed.Rep.

Ireland

Netherlands

Norway

Spain

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (N.Ireland)

UK (Scotland)

USSR / Russia (1992-)

Unallocated + discards

-

-

34,474

4,576

7,743

12,645

43,582

-

14

4,488

-

+

-

28,368

28

+

30,594

2,538

8,109

17,887

111,900

-

16

13,371

-

139

-

7,614

-

-

28,888

1,230

12,919

19,074

104,107

-

113

6,436

2,026

1,992

-

24,541

-

-

18,984

1,198

12,951

15,568

109,197

-

106

7,870

1,690

5,008

-

15,563

-

-

16,978

1,001

15,684

16,363

157,110

-

54

6,090

587

3,123

-

4,0103

-

1

41,605

-

14,828

15,281

92,903

-

29

12,418

119

9,015

-

14,057

-

-

28,300

-

17,436

58,011

116,126

-

25

31,641

-

10,522

-

68,644

-

-

43,330

-

15,949

38,455

114,692

-

33

28,605

-

11,241

-

26,795

-

18

60,412

27,201

28,549

43,624

81,464

-

-

17,464

1,093

7,931

-

58,718

Total 135,890 192,196 201,326 188,135 221,000 200,256 330,705 279,100 326,474


Table 9.4.3.5. Horse mackerel general . Catches (t) in Subarea VII by country. (Data submitted by the Working Group members).
Country 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Faroe Islands

Belgium

Denmark

France

Germany

Ireland

Lithuania

Netherlands

Spain

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (N.Ireland)

UK (Scotland)

Unallocated+discards

-

18

25,492

24,223

25,414

51,720

91,946

-

12,832

-

5,095

12,706

-

-

19,223

-

15,247

25,843

56,223

-

8,885

-

4,994

31,239

550

-

13,946

20,401

9,692

32,999

50,120

50

2,972

-

5,152

1,884

-

-

20,574

11,049

8,320

30,192

46,196

7

8,901

-

1,757

11,046

-

1

10,094

6,466

10,812

23,366

37,605

0

5,525

-

1,461

2,576

-

-

10,867

7,199

13,873

13,533

48.222

1

4,186

268

24,897

-

+

11,529

8,083

16,352

8,470

41,123

27

7,178

1,146

18,485

3,660

+

9,939

8,469

10,437

20,406

31,156

12

4,752

217

59

18,368

1,201

+

6,838

7,928

7,139

16,841

3,569

35,467

60

2,935

142

413

19,379

Total 249,446 161,654 137,766 138,042 97,906 123,046 112,393 107,475 101,912
                   
Country 2007 20081              

Faroe Islands

Belgium

Denmark

France

Germany

Ireland

Lithuania

Netherlands

Spain

Sweden

UK (Engl. + Wales)

UK (Scotland)

Unallocated+discards

475

+

4,806

6,844

3.943

8,039

5,585

38,034

-

55

9,105

738

15,460

212

+

1,970

11,008

5,700

16,293

4,907

43,514

11

-

-

476

14,656

             
Total 93,084 98,746              
1Preliminary


Country 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
Denmark - - - - - - 446 3,283 2,793
France 3,361 3,711 3.073 2,643 2,489 4,305 3,534 3,983 4,502
Netherlands - - - - -2 -2 -2 -2 -
Spain 34,134 36,362 19,610 25,580 23,119 23,292 40,334 30,098 26,629
UK (Engl.+Wales) - + 1 - 1 143 392 339 253
USSR - - - - 20 - 656 - -
Total 37,495 40,073 22,684 28,223 25,629 27,740 45,362 37,703 34,177


Country 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Denmark 6,729 5,726 1,349 5,778 1,955 - 340 140 729
France 4,719 5,082 6,164 6,220 4,010 28 - 7 8,690
Germany, Fed. Rep. - - 80 62 -   - - -
Netherlands - 6,000 12,437 9,339 19,000 7,272 - 14,187 2,944
Spain 27,170 25,182 23,733 27,688 27,921 25,409 28,349 29,428 31,081
UK (Engl.+Wales) 68 6 70 88 123 753 20 924 430
USSR/Russia (1992-) - - - - - - - - -
Unallocated+discards - 1,500 2,563 5,011 700 2,038 - 3,583 -2,944
Total 38,686 43,496 46,396 54,186 53,709 35,500 28,709 48,269 40,930


Table 9.4.3.6. Horse mackerel general. Catches (t) in Subarea VIII by country. (Data submitted by Working Group members).
Country 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Denmark 1,728 4,818 2,584 582 - -   - 1,513
France 1,844 74 7 5,316 13,676 - 2,161 3,540 3,944
Germany 3,268 3,197 3,760 3,645 2,249 4,908 72 4,776 3,325
Ireland - - 6,485 1,483 704 504 1,882 1,808 158

Lithuania

Netherlands

6,604

22,479

11,768

36,106

12,538

1,314

1,047

6,607

401

6,073

Russia - - - - - 6,620     -
Spain 23,599 24,190 24,154 23,531 22,110 24,598 16,245 16,624 13,874
UK (Engl. + Wales) 9 29 112 1,092 157 982 516 838 821
UK (Scotland) - - 249 - - -   - -
Unallocated+discards 1,884 -8658 5,093 4,365 1,705 2,785 2,202 7,302 4,013
Total 38,936 46,129 54,212 76,120 54,560 41,711 24,125 41,495 34,122
                   
Country 2007 20081              
Denmark 2,687 3,289              
France 10,741 2,848              
Germany - 918              
Ireland 694 246              

Lithuania

Netherlands

-

-

-

6,269

             
Russia - -              
Spain 13,853 19,840              
UK (Engl. + Wales) - -              
UK (Scotland) - -              
Unallocated+discards 412 482              
Total 28,387 33,892              

1Preliminary.

2Included in Subarea VII.



Table 9.4.3.7. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c,e–k, and VIIIa–e (Western stock). Summary of stock assessment.

Reference Point
 


  Type Value Technical basis
Precautionary approach Blim 1.4 Mt biomass that produced the extraordinary 1982 year class
  Bpa 1.8 Mt Blim * e 1.645*0.16 (16 % is the CV of SSB 1982 estimate from 2008 assessment)
  Flim NA  
  Fpa NA  
(Unchanged since:2008)



F reference points are undefined for this stock.
Projection

Given that the proposed management plan was for a period of 3 years starting in 2008 and that the TAC level was considered precautionary by ICES, no short-term forecast was conducted. The assessment suggests that the expected fishing mortality associated with a catch of 180 000 t in 2010 is likely to be low and that the SSB will remain above Bpa.
Scientific Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries

ICES advises on the basis of exploitation boundaries in relation to management plans that the TAC of 180000 tonnes provided in the proposed management plan by the Pelagic RAC should be implemented in 2010.

Exploitation boundaries in relation to existing management plans

The proposed management plan provides for a TAC of 180000 tonnes for the period 2008–2010 which is expected to maintain SSB above Blim with a high probability. This TAC should apply to all areas where Western horse mackerel is caught (see table below).

Exploitation boundaries in relation to the precautionary approach

The proposed management plan is consistent with the precautionary approach in the short term.


Table 9.4.3.1. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c,e–k, and VIIIa–e (Western stock). Single-stock exploitation boundaries (advice), management, and catch/landings.
Year

ICES

Advice

Predicted catch corresp. to advice2

Agreed

TAC1

ICES

Landings2

Disc.

Slip2

ICES

Catch2

1987 Not assessed - 155 157 - 157
1988 No increase in catches 102 169 184 4 188
1989 If sustained catches required; TAC 100 153 267 1 269
1990 TAC ~200 203 363 10 373
1991 Within safe biological limits - 230 328 5 334
1992 Within safe biological limits - 250 369 2 371
1993 Within safe biological limits - 250 424 9 433
1994 Prudent not to increase F - 300 385 4 389
1995 Reduction in catch - 300 509 2 511
1996 Reduction in catch - 300 379 17 397
1997 Reduction in F 173 300 440 3 443
1998 Reduction in F to 0.15 150 320 296 1 304
1999 Effectively limit catches to 200 000 t <200 265 274 - 274
2000 Effectively limit catches to 200 000 t <200 240 175 - 175
2001 Effectively limit catches to 224 000 t <224 233 191 - 191
2002 Effectively limit catches to 98 000 t <98 150 172 - 172
2003 Effectively limit catches to 113 000 t <113 137 1903 -3 1903
2004 Limit catches to less than 130 000 t <130 137 1573 13 1583
2005 Limit catches to less than 150 000 t <1503 137 182 - 182
2006 Limit catches to less than 150 000 t <1503 137 155 0 155
2007 Limit catches to less than 150 000 t <1503 137 123 0 123
2008 Follow proposed management plan 1804 170 140 0 140
2009 Follow proposed management plan 1804 170      
2010 Follow proposed management plan 1804        

Weights in ‘000 t.

1Division Vb (EU waters only), Subareas VI and VII, and Divisions VIIIa,b,d,e.

2Divisions IIa, IVa, Vb, VIa, VIIa–c, VIIe–k, and VIII a,b,d,e.

3Including Division VIIIc.

4 For the whole distribution area.



Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Objectives

There are currently no explicit agreed management objectives for this stock.

Following an EC request in 2007 to evaluate the consequences of the management plan proposed by the Pelagic RAC in July 2007 (see Appendix 9.4.3), ICES concluded that the proposed plan was consistent with the precautionary approach for a period of 3 years; i.e., it provides a basis for scientific advice for TACs in 2008–2010. However, the proposed management plan has yet to be formally adopted.
Management Advice

Management considerations

The management plan proposed by the Pelagic RAC in 2007 makes use of the information available in the egg production surveys, and bases triennial TACs on the slope of the three previous egg production estimates. The proposed plan assumes that all catches are counted against the TAC.

The advice for horse mackerel assumes that all catches are counted against the TAC for each stock separately. In 2009 and before, the TAC covered only part of the distribution and fishing areas (EU waters). ICES advises that the management areas correspond to the distribution areas which include all EU and Norwegian and Faroese waters where horse mackerel are caught.

The table below summarizes TACs set, ICES advice, catch for 2008, and 2009 advice and TACs:





From this table it can be seen that catches of the Southern horse mackerel and Western horse mackerel in 2008 are lower than the TACs and the ICES advice. In contrast, the catches of North Sea horse mackerel were 34.7 thousand tonnes following advice of 18 thousand tonnes in 2008. Most of the catch of North Sea horse mackerel is taken in ICES Division VIId. The key problem is that the TAC for the Western stock is allocated to this ICES division, but catches from this area are of North Sea horse mackerel. To ensure precautionary management of all the horse mackerel stocks, area TACs should be allocated according to the advice section of the table above. Specifically, three measures need to be taken:

  1. The TAC for western horse mackerel should apply to all areas where western horse mackerel is caught (EU, Norwegian, and Faroese waters) and where necessary be subject to agreement.
  2. Catches from ICES Division VIId should be taken against a TAC for the North Sea stock.
  3. Catches taken in Division VIIIc need to be taken against a TAC for the western stock.


If the management area limits are revised, measures should be taken to ensure that misreporting of juvenile catch taken in Divisions VIIe,h and VIId (the latter then belonging to the North Sea stock management area) is minimized.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Undefined
Abundance level: Full reproductive capacity


Spawning biomass in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to highest yield Fishing mortality in relation to agreed target

Comment

Full reproductive capacity Undefined Undefined Undefined F reference points undefined.



Based on the most recent estimate of SSB (in 2009), ICES classifies the stock as having full reproductive capacity. In the absence of defined F reference points, the state of this stock cannot be evaluated with regard to fishing mortality. The outstanding 2001 year class contributed to marked increases in SSB in 2004 and 2005, and SSB has remained above 2.5 million tonnes since 2005. Fishing mortality in recent years is relatively low.
Source of information
 
ICES. 2009. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009.
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