Fishery Resources Monitoring System

Français
Sardine - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin, 2008
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
ICES Advice 2009
Sardine - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin, 2008
Fact Sheet Citation  
Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
 
Species:
FAO Names: en - European pilchard(=Sardine), fr - Sardine commune, es - Sardina europea, ar - سردين أوروبا, zh - 沙丁鱼, ru - Сардина европейская
Geographic extent of Sardine - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Management unit: Yes
 
 
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m).   Vertical distribution: Pelagic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: National

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Exploitation
 

Factors affecting the fisheries and the stock

The effects of regulations

Different management measures have been enacted by Spain and Portugal since 1997. In Spain, management measures include a maximum allowable catch of 7000 kg per fishing day and a 5-fishing-days week limitation in effort is regulated. In Portugal, management measures include an overall limitation in the number of fishing days (180 days per year, and a weekend ban). The effects of these fishery regulations are uncertain but may have contributed to the decline in fishing mortality observed between 1998 and 2007.

The environment

Several studies have tried to detect a relationship between selected environmental variables and sardine dynamics, in particular to explain the high variability in recruitment. Local and large-scale variables (i.e. upwelling index, NAO, etc.) that could affect recruitment through influencing the survival of eggs and larvae have been explored through modelling work. In general, environmental effects in the models tend to be weak and have sometimes given contradictory results.

A number of studies are investigating the role of sardine in the ecosystem, both as predator and prey. Sardine is an omnivorous predator able to feed on both phytoplankton and zooplankton. In addition, sardines have been found to ingest their own eggs (and probably those of other species) and this cannibalism would act as a density control mechanism.

Sardine is prey for a range of fish and marine mammal species which take advantage of its schooling behaviour and availability.
Assessment
 
Assessment Model
Methodology

Scientific basis

Data and methods

The assessment is based on combined Spanish and Portuguese acoustic surveys in March, a DEPM (Daily Egg Production Method) survey series in March in Spanish waters and in January in Portugal and Cadiz, and catch-at-age data.

The Portuguese November acoustic survey is used to corroborate the recruitments estimates from the assessment.

Uncertainties in assessment and forecast

The main uncertainties in the assessment relate to the extent of sardine movement across the northern stock boundary, the weighting of Portuguese and Spanish acoustic surveys in the combined abundance index, and the estimation of fishery selection pattern for the older age groups. A discrepancy in the stock trends indicated by the most recent DEPM and acoustic surveys added some uncertainty to the absolute estimates of SSB and F in recent years, but not to the trends.

Comparison with previous assessment and advice

The assessment and advice are consistent with that provided last year despite some difference in the absolute SSB and F estimates for recent years. The new assessment generated a 17% higher estimate of SSB and a 22% lower estimate of fishing mortality in 2007 compared with the values provided last year, reflecting the influence of a new SSB data point from the 2008 DEPM survey.
Overall Assessment Results


Figure 7.4.5.1 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa: Summary of stock assessment: landings, fishing mortality, recruitment, and SSB. Predicted values are shaded.


Figure 7.4.5.2 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa: Stock–recruitment relationship.


Figure 7.4.5.3 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa. Comparison of current assessment with previous assessments.


Table 7.4.5.2 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa: Iberian sardine landings (tonnes) by Subarea and total.


Table 7.4.5.3 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa. Summary of stock assessment.

Year

Recruitment

Age 0

thousands

SSB

tonnes

Landings

tonnes

Mean F

Ages 2-5

1978 11805000 308000 145609 0.3459
1979 13874000 378000 157241 0.3526
1980 15081000 469000 194802 0.2556
1981 9578000 588000 216517 0.3070
1982 6994000 622000 206946 0.2926
1983 20233000 578000 183837 0.2554
1984 8610000 633000 206005 0.2305
1985 6584000 739000 208439 0.2272
1986 5500000 689000 187363 0.2898
1987 9223000 584000 177696 0.2830
1988 5942000 509000 161531 0.2947
1989 5927000 429000 140961 0.3150
1990 5622000 391000 149429 0.3736
1991 12995000 398000 132587 0.2710
1992 10831000 518000 130250 0.2466
1993 4841000 579000 142495 0.2910
1994 4753000 587000 136582 0.2039
1995 4034000 646000 125280 0.2161
1996 5147000 441000 116736 0.2421
1997 4032000 393000 115814 0.3282
1998 4145000 342000 108924 0.3736
1999 4057000 346000 94091 0.3252
2000 11414000 281000 85786 0.3045
2001 7903000 328000 101957 0.2360
2002 4399000 480000 99673 0.1968
2003 3098000 495000 97831 0.1928
2004 13888000 502000 98020 0.2005
2005 5639000 416000 97345 0.1706
2006 1856000 671000 87023 0.1490
2007 2992000 653000 96469 0.1596
2008 6525000 496000 101464 0.2221
2009 4923000* 421000
Average 7576406 497188 138861 0.2630
* GM(1995–2008)

Reference Point
 

Reference points have not been identified for this stock.
Projection

Basis: F(2009) = average F(06–08 unscaled) = 0.18; SSB(2009) 1) = 421; catch(2009) = 80; R(2009) and R(2010)= GM(1995–2008) = 4923 million


Outlook for 2010
Rationale Landings (2010) Basis

F

(2010)

SSB

(2010) 1)

SSB

(2011) 1)

%SSB change 2)
Zero catch 0 F=0 0 440 478 +7.9
Status quo 61 Fsq * 0.8 0.14 428 424 -0.9
68 Fsq * 0.9 0.16 427 417 -2.4
75 Fsq * 1.0 0.18 425 411 -3.4
82 Fsq * 1.1 0.19 424 405 -4.7
89 Fsq * 1.2 0.21 422 399 -5.8

Weights in ‘000 t.

1) For spring spawning stocks, the SSB is determined at spawning time and is influenced by fisheries between 1st January and spawning.

2) SSB 2011 relative to SSB 2010.



Scientific Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries

The current fishing mortality does not appear detrimental for the development of the stock, which is largely driven by the incoming recruitment. Therefore, ICES advises on the basis of exploitation boundaries in relation to precautionary considerations that the current level of fishing mortality could be maintained as a guide for management. This corresponds to a catch of 75 thousand tonnes in 2010.


Table 7.4.5.1 Sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa. Single-stock exploitation boundaries (advice), management, and landings.
Year

ICES

Advice

Predicted catch corresp. to advice

Agreed

TAC

Official

Landings

VIII & IX

ICES

Landings3

1987 No increase in F; TAC 140 - 178
1988 No increase in F; TAC 150 - 167 162
1989 No increase in F; TAC 212 - 146 141
1990 Room for increased F 2272 - 150 149
1991 Precautionary TAC 176 - 135 133
1992 No advice - - 139 130
1993 Precautionary TAC 135 - 153 142
1994 No advice 1181 - 147 137
1995 No advice; apparently stable stock - - 137 125
1996 Lowest possible level - - 134 117
1997 Lowest possible level - - n/a 116
1998 Significant reduction - - n/a 109
1999 Reduce F to 0.2 38 - n/a 94
2000 F below 0.2 <81 - n/a 86
2001 F below 0.2 <88 - n/a 102
2002 F below 0.25 <95 - n/a 100
2003 No increase in F 100 - n/a 98
2004 No increase in F 128 - n/a 98
2005 No increase in F 106 - n/a 97
2006 No increase in F 96 - n/a 87
2007 No increase in F 114 - n/a 96
2008 No increase in F 92 - n/a 101
2009 No increase in F 71 -
2010 No increase in F 75

Weights in ‘000 t.

1Estimated catch at status quo F.

2Catch corresponding to 20% increase in F.

3 Includes only Divisions VIIIc and IXa.

n/a=not available



Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Objectives

There are no explicit management objectives for this stock.
Management Advice

Management considerations

There are no management objectives for this stock and there is no TAC. Almost all catches are taken by Spanish and Portuguese purse-seiners in a directed human consumption fishery. The stock is managed by Portugal and through minimum landing size, maximum daily catch, days fishing limitations, and closed areas.

Sardine is distributed in the Iberian region, to the north in Subareas VII and VIII and in the North Sea, and to the south on the Moroccan shelf. The information presented here assumes that sardine in Divisions VIIIc and IXa is a unit stock, based on biological characteristics. However, some movement of fish between Divisions VIIIb and VIIIc is known to occur. The effect of this movement is uncertain but is presently considered to have little influence on the estimation of the stock in the assessed area (Divisions VIIIc and IXa).

Short-term predictions indicate a moderate decline (-14%) in SSB in 2010 from the SSB in 2008 at the assumed fishing mortality level, providing the 2008 recruitment is confirmed to be average and no strong recruitment occurs in 2009. Therefore, the catch in 2010 should be reduced. In the past, extended periods of successive low recruitments have been associated with periods of minimum stock size, most recently in the late 1990s, causing a negative impact in the Spanish fisheries.

A long-term plan would result in an improved management of this stock. Such a plan should take into account the spatial distribution of the stock. Management aiming at stability of catches may be more consistent with the objectives of stakeholders. A long-term management plan would be useful if stability of catches is desired. Such a strategy should be sufficiently flexible with respect to catch limitation to protect the stock under periods of poor recruitment, but also avoid unnecessary fluctuations in the catches when the stock biomass is higher.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Undefined
Abundance level: Undefined


Spawning biomass in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to highest yield

Fishing mortality in relation to

agreed target

Comment

Undefined

Undefined

Undefined Undefined



In the absence of defined reference points, the state of this stock cannot be evaluated with regard to these. SSB has declined since 2006 due to successive low recruitments and SSB in 2009 was below the long-term average. Fishing mortality in 2008 was 40% higher than in 2007, but is still below the historical average.
Source of information
 
ICES.2009.Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009.
powered by FIGIS  © FAO, 2014
Powered by FIGIS
crawl