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Angler fish - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin, 2008
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
ICES Advice 2009
Angler fish - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin, 2008
Fact Sheet Citation  
Anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (L. piscatorius and L. budegassa)
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
 
Species:
FAO Names: en - Monkfishes nei, fr - Baudroies nca, es - Rapes nep
Geographic extent of Angler fish - Bay of Biscay and Iberian Basin
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Management unit: Yes
 
 
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m).   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: National

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Exploitation
 

Factors affecting the fisheries and the stock

Regulations and their effects

Hake, Nephrops, anglerfishes and megrim are partly caught in the same mixed fisheries. Since the implementation of the southern hake and Nephrops recovery plan implemented in January 2006, fishing mortality of both anglerfish stocks has declined. Although ICES has not conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the recovery plan, the overshooting of annual TACs suggests that the plan has not been fully effective.

Impacts of the environment on the fish stock

Spawning of Lophius sp. involves the extrusion of eggs in a buoyant, gelatinous ribbon, which may measure more than 10 m. This can lead to a highly clustered distribution of eggs and newly emerged larvae. Although this could result in recruitment being sensitive to environmental variations, this has not been observed.
Assessment
 
Assessment Model
Methodology

Scientific basis

Data and methods

A surplus production model (ASPIC) was used to estimate stock biomass and fishing mortality relative to their respective maximum sustainable yield (MSY) values (see Figure 7.4.3.1). Two commercial lpue series were used in the model for each species.

Uncertainties in assessment and forecast

The assessment of anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa was performed separately for each species which allows the evaluation of the status of each species separately. The assessments are completely dependent on commercial lpue data which may be biased due to targeting, local depletions, and changes in efficiency.

Large amounts of small L. budegassa were observed in the 2006 and 2007 landings and these fish may have generated the good catch rates recorded in 2008. Discards are not included in the assessment, but data indicate that the level of discarding is low.

Comparison with previous assessment and advice

The 2009 assessments are consistent with the 2007 assessments. No assessments were performed in 2008. This year the advice was based on high-long term yield (FMSY) and to reach BMSY in the short term (2011) for L. piscatorius (the stock in poor condition).
Overall Assessment Results


Figure 7.4.3.1 Anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (L. piscatorius and L. budegassa). ASPIC results 80% confidence intervals (dotted lines) and point estimates of the F/FMSY and B/BMSY ratios are indicated.


Figure 7.4.3.2 Anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (L. piscatorius and L. budegassa). Total landings.


Table 7.4.3.2 Anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (L. piscatorius). Landings (in tonnes) by country and main fishing fleets, as estimated by the Working Group.


Table 7.4.3.3 Anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (L. budegassa). Landings (in tonnes) by country and main fishing fleets, as estimated by the Working Group.


Table 7.4.3.4 Anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (L. piscatorius and L. budegassa). Total landings for both species (in tonnes) by country and main fishing fleets, as estimated by the Working Group.

Reference Point
 

Precautionary reference points have not been defined for these stocks.

FMSY could be considered as a candidate for a reference point consistent with high long-term yield
Projection


Outlook for 2010 Basis L. piscatorius: F(2009) / FMSY = F(2008) / FMSY = 1.57; B(2010) / BMSY = 0.28; landing (2009) = 2470 t. Basis L. budegassa: F(2009) / FMSY = F(2008) / FMSY = 0.61; B(2010) / BMSY = 0.92; landings (2009) = 1272 t.
  L. pisc. L. bud. Combined species   L. piscatorius L. budegassa
Rationale

Landings

(2010)

Landings

(2010)

Landings

(2010)

Basis

F

(2010)

/

FMSY

B

(2011)

/

BMSY

% B change 1)

F

(2010)

/

FMSY

B

(2011)

/

BMSY

% B change 1) % TAC change 2)
Zero catch 0 0 0 F=0 0 0.50 +79% 0 1.34 +46% -100%
FMSY 1831 2375 4206

L. pis.: F(2008)*0.64

L. bud.: F(2008)*1.64

1 0.36 +29% 1 0.95 +3% 139%
Reduction of 69% 971 525 1496 F(2008)*0.31 0.49 0.43 +49% 0.19 1.26 +37% -15%
Reduction of 50% 1487 828 2315 F(2008)*0.50 0.79 0.39 +39% 0.30 1.21 +32% 32%
Reduction of 40% 1736 981 2717 F(2008)*0.60 0.94 0.37 +32% 0.37 1.19 +29% 54%
Reduction of 30% 1970 1131 3101 F(2008)*0.70 1.10 0.35 +25% 0.43 1.16 +26% 76%
Reduction of 20% 2192 1278 3470 F(2008)*0.80 1.26 0.33 +18% 0.49 1.14 +24% 97%
Reduction of 10% 2400 1421 3821 F(2008)*0.90 1.41 0.31 +11% 0.55 1.11 +21% 117%
Status quo 2597 1560 4157 Fsq 1.57 0.30 +7% 0.61 1.09 +18% 136%

TAC weights in tonnes.

1) B 2011 relative to B 2010.

2) Landings 2010 relative to TAC 2009 (1 760 t).



Scientific Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries

ICES advises on the basis of exploitation boundaries in relation to high long-term yield, low risk of depletion of production potential and considering ecosystem effects. In order to reach BMSY the 2010 catches should be zero or a management plan should be developed. The advice accounts for the poor condition of L. piscatorius stock.

Exploitation boundaries in relation to high long term yield, low risk of depletion of production potential and considering ecosystem effects

L. piscatorius fishing mortality equal to zero is not expected to bring the stock to BMSY until 2013.

L. budegassa fishing mortality equal to F status quo is expected to bring the stock to BMSY in 2011Short-term implications


Table 7.4.3.1 Anglerfish in Divisions VIIIc and IXa (L. piscatorius and L. budegassa). Single stock exploitation boundaries (advice), management, and landings.
Year ICES Advice / Single-Stock Exploitation Boundaries from 2004 onwards Predicted catch1) corresp. to advice / Single-Stock Exploitation Boundaries

Agreed

TAC1)

ICES

Landings1

Landings of

L. piscat.

Landings of

L. budeg.

1987 Not dealt with - 12.0 8.9 5.1 3.8
1988 Not dealt with - 12.0 10.0 6.3 3.7
1989 Not dealt with - 12.0 7.6 5.0 2.6
1990 Not dealt with - 12.0 6.1 3.8 2.3
1991 No advice - 12.0 5.8 3.6 2.2
1992 No advice - 12.0 4.2 3.4 2.1
1993 No long-term gain in increasing F - 13.0 4.5 2.3 2.2
1994 No advice - 13.0 3.6 2.0 1.6
1995 If required a precautionary TAC - 13.0 3.6 1.8 1.8
1996 If required a precautionary TAC - 13.0 4.6 3.0 1.6
1997 If required a precautionary TAC - 13.0 5.5 3.7 1.8
1998 Restrict catch to < 80% recent levels   10.0 5.1 3.0 2.1
1999 Reduce F to Fpa 4.2 8.5 3.8 1.9 1.9
2000 60% reduction in F 1.6 6.8 2.6 1.3 1.4
2001 50% reduction in F 2.8 6.0 1.8 0.8 1.0
2002 30% reduction in F 3.5 4.8 1.8 1.0 0.8
2003 5% reduction in F 3.2 4.0 3.2 2.3 0.9
2004 2) F = 0 or recovery plan 2) 0 2.3 4.1 3.1 1.0
2005 F = 0 or recovery plan 0 2.0 4.5 3.6 0.9
2006 F = 0 or recovery plan 0 2.0 4.1 3.0 1.1
2007 F = 0 or recovery plan 0 2.0 3.6 2.3 1.3
2008 F = 0 or recovery plan 0 2.0 3.3 2.3 1.0
2009 Same advice as last year 0 1.8      
2010 F = 0 or management plan 0        

Weights in ‘000 t.

1) For both species combined.

2) Single-stock boundary and the exploitation of this stock should be conducted in the context of mixed fisheries protecting stocks outside safe biological limits.



Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Objectives

There are no explicit management objectives for these stocks.
Management Advice

Management considerations

Although combined landings have declined from 2006 onwards, the TAC has been exceeded every year since 2004. Measures should be taken to ensure that the agreed TAC effectively restricts the fishery.

The two species are managed under a common TAC. They are usually caught and recorded together in the landing statistics. It is impossible to manage each species separately under a common TAC. This problem is highlighted by the different status of the two stocks. L. piscatorius (the stock in poor condition) constitutes around 70 % of the total anglerfish landings.

Stock status for L. piscatorius has remained unchanged since the last assessment in 2007, while stock status for L. budegassa has improved considerably with the current F below FMSY. Since they are caught together in most fisheries and managed under a common TAC, the advice depends on the stock in the poorer condition. Even setting L. piscatorius fishing mortality equal to zero is not expected to bring the stock to BMSY until 2013. Therefore, in order to reach BMSY as soon as possible, ICES reiterates its previous advice of zero catches for both stocks. Moreover, ICES recommends a rebuilding plan. A rebuilding plan should take into account that the two stocks of anglers are caught together and are part of a mixed fishery for hake, megrim and Nephrops.

Following the EU Commission consultation paper on TACs for 2010 (ACOM(2009) 224, 12 May 2009) this stock would be categorised as being overfished with respect to the fishing mortality that will deliver maximum sustainable yield. A 15% reduction in TAC in 2010, would generate more than a 37% increase in SSB in both anglerfish stocks between 2010 and 2011. ICES has not evaluated the proposed option in relation to the precautionary approach.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Undefined
Abundance level: Undefined


Spawning biomass in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to high long-term yield Fishing mortality in relation to agreed target reference points

Comment

Undefined Undefined

L. piscatorius – Overfished

L. budegassa – Appropriate

NA

L. piscatorius- B < BMSY

L. budegassa - B < BMSY




In the absence of defined reference points, the state of the stock cannot be evaluated in relation to these. The assessment is only considered indicative of stock trends and provides relative measures of stock status.

Biomass (in 2009) of L. piscatorius is estimated to be below BMSY and despite the decrease in fishing mortality since 2005, F (in 2008) is still above FMSY. The fishing mortality in 2008 is estimated to be 1.6 times higher than FMSY.

Fishing mortality for L. budegassa shows a decreasing trend since 1999 and in 2008 is below FMSY. This has led to an increase in biomass but in 2009 it is still below BMSY.
Source of information
 
ICES.2009.Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009.
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