|Marine Resource Fact Sheet|
|Sole - Skagerrak and Kattegat|
|Sole in Division IIIa and Subdivisions 22-24 (Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Belts)|
|FAO Names: en - Common sole, fr - Sole commune, es - Lenguado común, zh - 欧洲鳎|
|Considered a single stock: Yes
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional|
Reference Year: 2012
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m). Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.
Sole is a nocturnal predator and therefore more susceptible to capture by fisheries at night than in daylight.
Jurisdictional distribution: National
Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Ecoregion: North Sea
Considered a single stock: Yes
Sole is taken in a directed trawl fishery with bycatch of Nephrops, plaice and cod, the main season being in autumn–winter. In addition there is a directed gillnet fishery for sole, mainly in Skagerrak in spring and summer.
||Total landings (2011) =551 t, where 92% are landings (43% trawl, 41% gillnets, and 8% unknown) and 8% discards.
Overall Assessment Results
|Figure 184.108.40.206 Sole in Division IIIa and Subdivisions 22–24. Summary of stock assessment (weights in ‘000 tonnes). 95% confidence limits indicated for recruitment, fishing mortality, and spawning-stock biomass. Top right: SSB and F over the years. |
Assessment ModelQuality consideration
Sampling of landings is complicated by the small total landings which are dispersed spatially. This affects the quality of the input data. Historically, the assessment has overestimated SSB and underestimated fishing mortality.Scientific basis
||Age-based analytical stochastic assessment (SAM).
||One survey index (Fisherman-DTU Aqua survey);
||three commercial cpue indices (official logbook trawlers, private logbook trawlers, and gillnetters).
|Discards and bycatch
||Not included in the assessment.
||Benchmark done in 2010 (WKFLAT 2010).
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Below trigger
Abundance level: At target
Source of information
The above excerpts are from the first two pages of the ICES advice, the supporting information to this advice can be read in full at the following reference:
ICES. Sole in Division IIIa and Subdivisions 22–24 (Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Belts). Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2012. ICES Advice, WKFLAT 2012. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2012/2012/sol-kask.pdf