Fisheries and Resources Monitoring System

Sole - Skagerrak and Kattegat
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
ICES Advice 2012
Sole - Skagerrak and Kattegat
Fact Sheet Citation  
Sole in Division IIIa and Subdivisions 22-24 (Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Belts)
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
FAO Names: en - Common sole, fr - Sole commune, es - Lenguado común, zh - 欧洲鳎
Geographic extent of Sole - Skagerrak and Kattegat
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Reference year: 2012
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m).   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Sole is a nocturnal predator and therefore more susceptible to capture by fisheries at night than in daylight.
Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: National

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Ecoregion: North Sea
Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes

The fisheries

Sole is taken in a directed trawl fishery with bycatch of Nephrops, plaice and cod, the main season being in autumn–winter. In addition there is a directed gillnet fishery for sole, mainly in Skagerrak in spring and summer.
Catch distribution Total landings (2011) =551 t, where 92% are landings (43% trawl, 41% gillnets, and 8% unknown) and 8% discards.

Overall Assessment Results
Figure Sole in Division IIIa and Subdivisions 22–24. Summary of stock assessment (weights in ‘000 tonnes). 95% confidence limits indicated for recruitment, fishing mortality, and spawning-stock biomass. Top right: SSB and F over the years.
Assessment Model

Quality consideration

Sampling of landings is complicated by the small total landings which are dispersed spatially. This affects the quality of the input data. Historically, the assessment has overestimated SSB and underestimated fishing mortality.

Scientific basis

Assessment type Age-based analytical stochastic assessment (SAM).
Input data One survey index (Fisherman-DTU Aqua survey);
  three commercial cpue indices (official logbook trawlers, private logbook trawlers, and gillnetters).
Discards and bycatch Not included in the assessment.
Indicators None.
Other information Benchmark done in 2010 (WKFLAT 2010).

Biological State and Trend
State & Trend Descriptors
Exploitation rateBelow triggerModerate fishing mortality
Abundance levelAt targetDepleted
Source of information

The above excerpts are from the first two pages of the ICES advice, the supporting information to this advice can be read in full at the following reference:
ICES. Sole in Division IIIa and Subdivisions 22–24 (Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Belts). Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2012. ICES Advice, WKFLAT 2012. Click to open
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