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Golden Redfish - Reykjanes Ridge, 2008
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
ICES Advice 2009
Golden Redfish - Reykjanes Ridge, 2008
Fact Sheet Citation  
Sebastes marinus in Sub-areas V, VI, XII and XIV
Owned byInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) – More
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Species:
FAO Names: en - Golden redfish, fr - Sébaste doré, es - Gallineta dorada, ru - Окунь золотистый
Geographic extent of Golden Redfish - Reykjanes Ridge
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Management unit: Yes
 
 
Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m).   Vertical distribution: Pelagic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: Shared between nations

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Assessment
 
Assessment Model
Methodology

Scientific basis

Data and methods

Survey data are available from the Icelandic spring groundfish survey 1985–2009, the German groundfish survey 1985–2008 in Subarea XIV, and the Faroese spring (1994–2009) and summer (1996–2008) surveys in Division Vb.

Data from the commercial catch in Division Va include length distribution, age–length key, and mean length-at-age.

The state of the stock is classified according to results from the Icelandic spring groundfish survey. The quantitative advice is derived from analysis with an age–length-based model (GADGET).which uses catch data and survey data from Va.

Uncertainty in the assessment and forecast

An abundance index that covers the whole distributional range of the stock is not available. The analytical assessment is only based on a survey index from Division Va, covering the fishing area which accounts for more than 90% of the removal since 1985. This approach may create a bias in the assessment that cannot be quantified.

Comparison with previous assessment and advice

The basis of the assessment and advice is the same as last year.
Overall Assessment Results


Figure 2.4.7.1. Sebastes marinus. Nominal landings in tonnes in ICES Division Va and in other areas (landing statistics for ICES Divisions Vb, VI, and XIV combined). Landings statistics for 2008 are provisional.


Figure 2.4.7.2. Index with ± one SD of the estimates on the fishable stock of S. marinus from the Icelandic groundfish survey in March. The index is based on all strata at depths from 0 to 400 m.


Figure 2.4.7.3. S. marinus (17 cm). Survey biomass and abundance indices for East and West Greenland. Left: Total biomass index including one standard error. Right: Total biomass index split into pre-fishery recruits (17–30 cm) and fishable redfish (>30 cm).


Figure 2.4.7.4. Cpue of S. marinus in the Faroese spring groundfish survey and the summer groundfish survey in ICES Division Vb.


Figure 2.4.7.5. Results from the GADGET assessment using landing data from ICES Division Va. Development of available biomass using different catch options (0–50 000 t) after 2009.


2.4.7.6. Estimated recruitment-at-age 1 (from the Gadget model using catch data from ICES Division Va).


Table 2.4.7.1. Official landings (in tonnes) of S. marinus, by area, as officially reported to ICES.
  Area  
Year Va Vb VI XIV Total
1978 31,300 2,039 313 15,477 49,129
1979 56,616 4,805 6 15,787 77,214
1980 62,052 4,920 2 22,203 89,177
1981 75,828 2,538 3 23,608 101,977
1982 97,899 1,810 28 30,692 130,429
1983 87,412 3,394 60 15,636 106,502
1984 84,766 6,228 86 5,040 96,120
1985 67,312 9,194 245 2,117 78,868
1986 67,772 6,300 288 2,988 77,348
1987 69,212 6,143 576 1,196 77,127
1988 80,472 5,020 533 3,964 89,989
1989 51,852 4,140 373 685 57,050
1990 63,156 2,407 382 687 66,632
1991 49,677 2,140 292 4,255 56,364
1992 51,464 3,460 40 746 55,710
1993 45,890 2,621 101 1,738 50,350
1994 38,669 2,274 129 1,443 42,515
1995 41,516 2,581 606 62 44,765
1996 33,558 2,316 664 59 36,597
1997 36,342 2,839 542 37 39,761
1998 36,771 2,565 379 109 39,825
1999 39,824 1,436 773 7 42,040
2000 41,187 1,498 776 89 43,550
2001 35,067 1,631 535 93 37,326
2002 48,570 1,941 392 189 51,092
2003 36,577 1,459 968 215 39,220
2004 31,686 1,139 519 107 33,451
2005 42,593 2,484 137 115 45,329
2006 41,521 656 0 34 42,211
2007 39,058 689 0 83 39,830
20081) 44,308 569 64 80 45,021

Reference Point
 

ICES suggests that the relative state of the stock be assessed through a survey index-series (U) in Icelandic waters.


  Type Value Technical basis
Precautionary approach Ulim 55 20% of highest observed survey index*.
  Upa 155 60% of highest observed survey index*.
  Flim Undefined  
  Fpa Undefined  
Targets Uy Undefined  
(unchanged since 1998)



* Technical basis for the survey index:

The basis for the calculation of the Upa is the Icelandic spring groundfish survey index-series starting in 1985. Since 1990 the average U has been around half of Umax – the highest observed index in the time-series (276 in 1987). This has not resulted in any strong year classes compared to higher U’s. A precautionary Upa is therefore proposed at Umax*0.6, corresponding to the U’s associated with the most recent strong year class. U is regarded as a proxy for SSB but represents the fishable biomass.
Projection

Biomass trajectories for different catches are presented in Figure 2.4.7.5.
Scientific Advice

Single-stock exploitation boundaries

Exploitation boundaries in relation to precautionary limits

Catches in 2010 should be less than 30000 t, because this is expected to keep the stock above Upa in the medium term.


Year ICES Advice Predicted catch corresp. to advice Iceland TAC Greenland TAC7 S. marinus ICES landings
1987 No increase in F 83 951   77
1988 No increase in F 84 851   90
1989 TAC1 1171 771   57
1990 TAC1 1161 801   67
1991 Precautionary TAC 77(1171 ) 551,5   56
1992 Precautionary TAC 76(1161) 901,6   56
1993 Precautionary TAC1 1201 1041, 6   50
1994 Precautionary TAC, if required 1001 901, 6   43
1995 TAC 901 771, 6   45
1996 TAC for Va (28); precautionary TAC for Vb and XIV (4) 322 651, 6   37
1997 Effort 75% of 1995 value 322 651, 6   40
1998 Effort reduced in steps of 25% from the 1995 level 37.22 651, 6   39
1999 Effort not increased compared to 1997 352 651, 6   42
2000 Catch not increased compared to 1998 352 601, 6   44
2001 Effort not increased compared to 1999 332,3 571, 6   37
2002 25% reduction in effort 294 651, 6   51
2003 25% reduction in effort(2001) 314 601, 6   39
2004 25% reduction in effort(2002) 37.44 571, 6   33.4
2005 Maintain fishable biomass above Upa 374 571, 6   45.4
2006 Maintain fishable biomass above Upa 374 571, 6   42.1
2007 Maintain fishable biomass above Upa 374 571, 6 5 40.3
2008 Maintain fishable biomass above Upa 374 571, 6 1 45.0
2009 Maintain fishable biomass above Upa < 30 501, 6    
2010 Maintain fishable biomass above Upa < 30      

Weights in ‘000 t.

1 Deep-sea S. mentella and S. marinus combined.

2 S. marinus only.

3 In Va only.

4 Both Va and Vb and XIV.

5 Year ending 31 August.

6 Quota year September–August.

7 Demersal redfish (Sebastes marinus and S. mentella).



Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Objectives

There are no explicit management objectives for this stock.
Management Advice

Management considerations

Sebastes marinus is a species with late maturation and slow growth and is hence considered to be vulnerable to overexploitation. It can therefore only sustain low exploitation and management should be based on that consideration.

The strong 1990 year class has been in the Icelandic fishery for a decade and will also sustain the stock in the short term. The 1996–1998 year classes are above average and recruited to the fishery since 2006. (Figure 2.4.7.6.)

The present management scheme in Division Va sets a joint TAC for S. marinus and demersal S. mentella on the shelf. This impedes direct management of fisheries on S. marinus. TAC or effort allocated to demersal redfish fishery should be given separately for each of the redfish species.

Subarea XIV is an important nursery area for S. mentella and S. marinus. The survey index of the fishable stock of S. marinus in Subarea XIV has increased in recent years, but with a large measurement error. Measures to protect juvenile redfish in Subarea XIV should be continued (sorting grids in the shrimp fishery).

In Subarea XIV redfish and cod are found in the same areas and depths and historically these species have been taken in the same fisheries. For 2010, ICES advises that no fishery should take place on cod in Greenland waters. Management measures should be put in place that minimises catches of cod in a directed fishery for S.marinus.

No formal agreement on the management of S. marinus exists among the three coastal states, Greenland, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands. In Greenland and Iceland, the fishery is regulated by a TAC and in the Faroe Islands by effort limitation.

On average, about 10% of the total landings have been taken in Divisions Vb, VI, and XIV. In recent years, catches in Division Va have represented about 98% of the catches in the entire distribution area Divisions V, VI, and XIV.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Undefined
Abundance level: Increased risk


Spawning biomass in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to precautionary limits Fishing mortality in relation to high long-term yield Fishing mortality in relation to agreed target Comment
Increased risk Undefined Undefined NA For this stock, a survey index series (U) is used as a reference instead of absolute values of SSB and fishing mortality.



Based on the most recent indicator of SSB (in 2008) ICES classifies the stock as being at risk of having reduced reproductive capacity. In recent years the survey index in Icelandic waters has fluctuated around Upa (Figure 2.4.7.2) and, at present, is slightly below. Survey indices of both pre-fishery recruits and of fishable size in East Greenland have increased in recent years.

In Division Vb the Faroese groundfish survey (covering 1994–2009) indicates that the abundance has been stable at a low level since 2001. Landings have declined since 1985 to a low level in recent years, and this decline is also reflected in the Faroese summer survey.
Source of information
 
ICES.2009.Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009.
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