Habitat and Biology
Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m). Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.
Haddock can vary their diet and eat fish, plankton, or benthos. During the spawning migration of capelin, haddock prey on capelin and their eggs on the spawning grounds. When the capelin abundance is low or when their areas do not overlap, haddock can compensate for the lack of capelin with other fish species such as young herring, or with euphausiids and benthos, which are predominant in the haddock diet throughout the year. Density-dependent growth has been observed for this stock and the present growth rate is low. Cod is the main predator on haddock and this predation is included in the natural mortality used in the assessment. The predation by cod on haddock has been high in recent years due to the large cod stock size.Environmental influence on the stock
Variation in the recruitment of haddock has been associated with changes in the influx of Atlantic waters to the Barents Sea. Water temperature in the first and second years of the haddock life cycle is one of the factors that determine year-class strength; the probability of good recruitment is very low when the temperature is low. Additionally, a steep rise or fall of the water temperature shows a marked effect on the abundance of year classes. This information on environmental influence is not yet taken into account in the assessment. The distribution area of cod has expanded northwards and eastwards in recent years and is now the widest ever reported, stretching from northwest of Spitsbergen to the entrance to the Kara Sea in the southeast.
Jurisdictional distribution: Shared between nations
Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Sub-Regional
Ecoregion: Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea
Considered a single stock: Yes
Haddock is mainly fished by trawl as bycatch in the fishery for cod, with some directed fisheries by longline and trawl.
TAC regulations are in place. Unreported catches have decreased in recent years and were close to zero in 2009–2011. Discarding is illegal in Norway and Russia. Data on discarding are scarce, but attempts to obtain better quantification continue. The fisheries are controlled by inspections at sea, by a requirement to report to catch control points when entering and leaving the EEZs to land fish, and by VMS satellite tracking for some fleets.
||Total landings (2011) = 310 kt, where 100% are landings (73% trawl, 17% longline, and 10% other gear types).
ICES advises on the basis of the Joint Russian–Norwegian Fisheries Commission management plan that catches in 2013 should be no more than 238 000 t.
Overall Assessment Results
|Figure 126.96.36.199 Haddock in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic). Summary of stock assessment (weights in thousand tonnes). Top right: SSB/F for the time-series used in the assessment.. |
Assessment ModelQuality consideration
The uncertainties in this assessment relate both to catch and survey data. Unreported catches (illegal, unregulated, and unreported (IUU)) have been a problem in recent years, but do not affect the data collected in 2009–2011. Due to technical problems with a Norwegian survey vessel the spatial coverage in the 2012 Joint winter survey was incomplete.
Norwegian sampling of commercial catches is believed to be less precise because of the termination of a Norwegian port sampling programme in mid-2009. The poor sampling caused problems in estimating Norwegian catches for the oldest ages in 2010. A small Norwegian port sampling programme from 2011 and onwards and an expansion of the high seas reference fleet has improved the situation somewhat. But there is still a lack of samples from certain gears and areas and the working group recommends an increase in port sampling effort.
|Figure 188.8.131.52 Haddock in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic). Historical assessment results (final-year recruitment estimates included). Insert Image description or remove the attribute. |
||Age-based analytical assessment XSA.
||Four tuning fleets were used: Russian bottom trawl survey (RU-BTr-Q4); Joint Barents Sea survey – acoustic (BS-NoRU-Q1(Aco)); Joint Barents Sea survey – bottom trawl (BS-NoRu-Q1 (BTr)); Joint Russian–Norwegian ecosystem autumn survey in the Barents Sea – bottom trawl (Eco-NoRu-Q3 (Btr)). Data on cod consumption of age 0–6 haddock is available from 1984.
|Discards and bycatch
||Discards are not included.
|Working group report
Management unit: YesManagement plans
A management plan has been agreed upon by the Joint Russian–Norwegian Fisheries Commission in 2004 (see Annex 3.4.3). It was modified in 2007 from a three-year rule to a one-year rule on the basis of the harvest control rule (HCR) evaluation conducted by ICES. The plan is to be used until 2015. ICES has evaluated the modified management plan and concluded that it is in accordance with the precautionary approach and not in contradiction with the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) framework.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation rate: Above target. Within target range.
Abundance level: Above trigger
The SSB has been above MSY Btrigger since 1990, increasing since 2000 and reaching the series maximum in 2011. Fishing mortality has been around FMSY since the mid-1990s. Recruitment-at-age 3 has been at or above average since 2000. The year classes 2004–2006 are estimated to be very strong and are now dominating the spawning stock. Surveys indicate that the year classes 2008 and 2010 are below average, while 2009 and 2011 year classes are above average.
Source of information
The above excerpts are from the first two pages of the ICES advice, the supporting information to this advice can be read in full at the following reference:
ICES. Haddock in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2012. ICES Advice, June 2012. http://www.ices.dk/committe/acom/comwork/report/2012/2012/had-arct.pdf