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Yellowtail flounder - Grand Bank
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
Stocks management recommendations 2015
Yellowtail flounder - Grand Bank
Fact Sheet Citation  
Yellowtail flounder in Div. 3LNO
Owned byNorthwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
 
Species:
FAO Names: en - Yellowtail flounder, fr - Limande à queue jaune, es - Limanda, ru - Камбала желтохвостая (=лиманда желтохвостая)
Geographic extent of Yellowtail flounder - Grand Bank
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Regional
Management unit: Yes        Reference year: 2014
 
 
Biological State and Trend
State & Trend Descriptors
PartnerFIRMS
Exploitation rateNone- Low Fishing MortalityNo or low fishing mortalityGreen
Abundance levelVirgin-Large stock sizePre-exploitation biomass or high abundance

The stock size has steadily increased since 1994 and is now well above Bmsy. There is very low risk of the stock being below Bmsy or F being above Fmsy. Recent recruitment appears lower than average.
Habitat and Biology
Climatic zone: Temperate.   Bottom type: Unspecified.   Depth zone: Slope - Deepslope (500 m - 1000 m).   Horizontal distribution: Neritic.   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: Straddling between High Seas and EEZ

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Regional

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Exploitation
 

Yellowtail flounder is caught in a directed trawl fishery and as by-catch in other trawl fisheries. The fishery is regulated by quota and minimum size restrictions. Catches in recent years have been low due to industry-related factors. American plaice and cod are taken as by-catch in the yellowtail fishery. There is a 15% by-catch restriction on American plaice and a 4% limit on cod.

Recent catch estimates and TACs (‘000 t) are as follows:
  2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
TAC1 15.0 15.5 15.5 17 17 17 17 17 17 17
STATLANT 21 0.6 4.4 11.3 5.8 9.3 5.2 3.2 10.5 8.0  
STACFIS 0.9 4.6 11.4 6.2 9.4 5.2 3.1 10.7 8.0  

SC recommended any TAC up to 85% Fmsy in 2009-2015.



Effects of the fishery on the ecosystem

Fishing intensity on yellowtail flounder has impacts on Div. 3NO cod and Div. 3LNO American plaice through by-catch. General impacts of fishing gears on the ecosystem should also be considered.
Assessment
 
Overall Assessment Results
Reference Point
 

Blim is 30% Bmsy and Flim is Fmsy (STACFIS 2004 p. 133).
Projection


        Catch 2015 = 17 000 t (TAC)  
  Yield P(Fy > Fmsy) P(By < Bmsy)  
F Level 2016 2017 2018 2015 2016 2017 2018 2016 2017 2018 2019 P (B2018 > B2014)
2/3 Fmsy 19.94 18.85 18.15 <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1%
75% Fmsy 22.22 20.70 19.72 <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1%
85% Fmsy 24.91 22.79 21.44 5% 5% 5% 5% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1%


        Catch 2015 = 7400 t  
  Yield P(Fy > Fmsy) P(By < Bmsy)  
F Level 2016 2017 2018 2015 2016 2017 2018 2016 2017 2018 2019 P (B2018 > B2014)
2/3 Fmsy 21.02 19.52 18.58 <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1%
75% Fmsy 23.43 21.44 20.21 <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1%
85% Fmsy 26.26 23.62 21.97 5% 5% 5% 5% <1% <1% <1% <1% <1%



Assessment Model
Analytical assessment
Results

A surplus production model was used (STACFIS 2015). The results were consistent with the previous assessment and are considered to be reliable. Input data comes from research surveys and the fishery (STACFIS 2015) and is considered good quality. Next assessment: 2017.

Fishing Mortality

Recruitment

Biomass

Human impact

Mainly fishery related mortality has been documented. Other sources (e.g. pollution, shipping, oil-industry) are undocumented.

Biological and environmental interactions

As stock size increased from the low level in the mid-90s, the stock expanded northward and continues to occupy this wider distribution. This expansion coincided with warmer temperatures; temperatures continue to warm, and will likely not limit the stock distribution in the near future.

Despite the increase in stock size observed since the mid-90s, length at which 50% of fish are mature has been lower for both males and females in the recent period. There also seems to have been a slight downward trend in weight at length since 1996. The cause of these changes is unknown.
Scientific Advice

Special comments

Catch of yellowtail flounder has been below TAC in recent years. If catches increase, fishing mortality on Div. 3NO cod and Div. 3LNO American plaice will also increase.
Management
Management unit: Yes

Management Advice

Recommendation for 2016, 2017 and 2018

Based on recent catch levels, fishing mortality up to 85% Fmsy corresponding to a catch of 26 300 t in 2016, 23 600 t in 2017 and 22 000 t in 2018 has low risk (5%) of exceeding Flim, and is projected to maintain the stock well above Bmsy.
Management Objectives

No explicit management plan or management objectives are defined by Fisheries Commission. General convention objectives (GC Doc. 08/3) are applied. Advice is provided in the context of the Precautionary Approach Framework (FC Doc. 04/18).

Stock definition for management purposes

The stock occurs in Divisions 3LNO, mainly concentrated on the southern Grand Bank and is recruited from the Southeast Shoal area nursery ground.
Source of information
 
SCR Docs. 11/34, 15/08, 026, 029; SCS Docs. 15-05, 6, 7, 8, 9; NAFO/GC Doc. 08-3; NAFO/FC Doc. 04-18 Click to openhttp://www.nafo.int/publications/frames/sci-docs.html
Report of the Meeting, 29 May- 11 June, 2015 - SCS Doc. 15/12 Click to openhttp://www.nafo.int/publications/frames/sci-reports.html
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