Habitat and Biology
Climatic zone: Tropical. Bottom type: Hard rocky bottom; Soft bottom clean sand. Depth zone: Coastal (0 m - 50 m); Shelf - Uppershelf (up to 100 m). Horizontal distribution: Littoral. Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.
Red pandora is found both on hard and sandy bottoms, in particular in depths of more than 100 m. They are omnivores with a mainly carnivore diet including crustaceans, cephalopods, small fish, amphioxus and worms. In the East Atlantic the species is distributed from the Straits of Gibraltar to Angola, including the southwest Mediterranean and Canary Islands.
Jurisdictional distribution: Shared between nations
Considered a single stock: Yes
The Working Group considered a single stock exploited by the industrial and artisanal fisheries over the whole zone. However, given its importance in each country, the Working Group decided to carry out an analysis by management unit (Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia).
The total catch series of Pagellus bellottii
over the whole northern CECAF zone (Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia) was used. For the abundance indices series, after several attempts with various abundance series (ice canoes, Mauritanian national cephalopod trawlers), the Working Group decided to use the CPUE series of the motorized line canoes from the Senegalese artisanal fishery.
The Schaefer dynamic production model implemented on an Excel spreadsheet was used to assess the state of the Pagellus bellottii
fishery stock (FAO, 2007).
Overall Assessment Results
The model gives a satisfactory fit to the data.
Current biomass is below that corresponding to the B0.1 biomass. Current fishing effort is greatly above that producing a sustainable yield at current biomass levels (Table 1).
Table 1: Indicators on the state of the stock for the Pagellus bellottii fishery in the northern CECAF zone
|| F cur /F SYcur
|| B cur /B 0.1
|| F cur /F 0.1
|| B cur /B MSY
|| F cur /F MSY
|Pagellus bellottii (Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia)/CPUE motorized line canoes Senegal
Fcur/FSYcur: Ratio between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and the coefficient that would give a sustainable yield at current biomass levels.
Bcur/B0.1: Ratio between the estimated biomass for the last year and the biomass corresponding to F0.1.
Fcur/F0.1: Ratio between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and F0.
Bcur/BMSY: Ratio between the estimated biomass for the last year and the biomass coefficient corresponding to FMSY.
Fcur/FMSY: Ratio between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and the coefficient giving maximum long term sustainable yield.
The stock is heavily overexploited. This conforms with the drop or even collapse of the abundance indices measured in Mauritania by the R/V AL-AWAM. On the other hand, the increase in CPUEs of the ice canoes in Senegal could be explained by the enlargement of their fishing zone outside of Senegal towards countries to the south.
Scientific Advicefor Management considerations
As during the previous Working Group, it is recommended that fishing effort be reduced for all demersal fisheries.
Biological State and Trend
Exploitation state: OverexploitedExploitation rate: Fcur/F0.1= 361%
Abundance level: Bcur/B0.1= 17%
Source of information
FAO Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic/Comité des pêches pour l’Atlantique Centre-Est. “Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Resources, Sub-Group North” Banjul, The Gambia, from 6 to 14 November 2007
“Rapport du Groupe de travail FAO/COPACE sur l’évaluation des poissons demersaux – Sous-Groupe Nord” Banjul, Gambie, 6 - 14 Novembre 2007
Rome, FAO . 2010
The bibliographic references are available in the report included in "Source of Information".