Habitat and Biology
Bottom type: Soft bottom - clean sand. Depth zone: Shelf; Slope; Abyssal. Horizontal distribution: Neritic; Oceanic. Vertical distribution: Pelagic.
Jurisdictional distribution: Shared between nations
Considered a single stock: Yes
Biological State and Trend
Probably Fully exploited.
“Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa. Banjul, Republic of Gambia, 5-12 April 2002.” FAO 2002 FAO Fisheries Report No 686 FAO.
“Report of the FOURTH SESSION OF CECAF SCIENTIFIC SUB-COMMITTEE ACCRA, GHANA, 24-26 OCTOBER 2005” FAO 2006 FAO fisheries technical paper 457 FAO.