Fisheries and Resources Monitoring System

Sardine - Southern stock (26°N - southern limit of species distribution)
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
CECAF Scientific advice 2016
Sardine - Southern stock (26°N - southern limit of species distribution)
Fact Sheet Citation  
Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) - stock Sud (C, 26°N - extension sud de l'espece)
Owned byFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
FAO Names: en - European pilchard(=Sardine), fr - Sardine commune, es - Sardina europea, ar - سردين أوروبا, zh - 沙丁鱼, ru - Сардина европейская

Fishery Indicators
Production: Catch
Geographic extent of Sardine - Southern stock (26°N - southern limit of species distribution)
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Local
Management unit: Yes        Reference year: 2013
Biological State and Trend
State & Trend Descriptors
Exploitation rateFcur/F0.1 = 32% ; Fcur/FMSY = 29%Not applicable
Abundance levelBcur/B0.1 = 141% ; Bcur/BMSY = 155%Not applicable
FAO Categories
Exploitation stateNot fully exploited

Fcur/F0.1: Ratio between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and F0.1.
Fcur/FSYcur: Ratio between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and the coefficient that would give a sustainable yield at the current biomass level.
Bcur/B0.1: Ratio between the estimated biomass for the last year and the biomass corresponding to F0.1.
Bcur/BMSY: Ratio between the estimated biomass for the last year and the biomass corresponding to FMSY.
Unless otherwise indicated, the indicators were based on the Schaefer dynamic production stock assessment model.
Habitat and Biology
Climatic zone: Temperate; Tropical.   Depth zone: Coastal (0 m - 50 m); Shelf - Uppershelf (up to 100 m).   Horizontal distribution: Littoral.   Vertical distribution: Pelagic.  

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Local

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
ProductionCatch 766207tonnes1990
Catch 654963tonnes1991
Catch 429802tonnes1992
Catch 288426tonnes1993
Catch 188277tonnes1994
Catch 132236tonnes1995
Catch 229140tonnes1996
Catch 207502tonnes1997
Catch 225087tonnes1998
Catch 134575tonnes1999
Catch 61123tonnes2000
Catch 35908tonnes2001
Catch 59605tonnes2002
Catch 127459tonnes2003
Catch 160457tonnes2004
Catch 205622tonnes2005
Catch 297235tonnes2006
Catch 288295tonnes2007
Catch 278555tonnes2008
Catch 317598tonnes2009
Catch 419544tonnes2010
Catch 419102tonnes2011
Catch 359651tonnes2012
Catch 348686tonnes2013
Catch 344051tonnes2014

Assessment year: 2015
The CECAF Working Groups have adopted the following Biological Reference Points (BRPs):
- Limit Reference points: BMSY and FMSY
- Target Reference Points: B0.1 and F0.1
Stock status is assigned based on current estimates of fishing mortality (Fcur) and biomass (Bcur) relative to these target and limit reference points (Bcur/BMSY, Fcur/FMSY, Bcur/B0.1, Fcur/F0.1). The results from the stock assessment of this stock are found under the “Biological state and trend section”.
Assessment Model
Type:  Biomass-aggregated
Schaefer dynamic production model
A Surplus Production Model Incorporating Covariates (ASPIC)
Assessment Model
Type:  Age-structured
Statistica Catch at Age (SCAA)
Overall Assessment Results

For stock C, the biomass level in 2013 which is higher than the biomass B0.1 and the fishing mortality level below F0.1, shows the stock is not fully exploited. However, it is recommended to monitor the state of this stock to detect abundance fluctuations and define the demographic composition of the population in order to adjust the fishing effort or/and catches according to these changes and adopt, in time, pertinent management measures to ensure sustainability in the exploitation of this stock. The biomass indices for this stock have also experienced fluctuations since 1995 like the central stock. After a highly significant decline in biomass in 1997, the stock showed a progressive and almost continuous recovery until 2005, to reach the highest biomass level of the entire series. From 2006, the biomass again showed a decreasing trend until 2012. In 2013, the sardine biomass increased, but the level remains below the average biomass level recorded over the entire series (Table 2.6.1 of FAO, 2016b). These variations in biomass are not due to the fishery but to environmental changes. An analysis of the evolution of mean sea water surface temperatures measured by satellite in Cape Blanc showed an increase in temperature from 2005 to 2010.
Scientific Advice

The stock is influenced by environmental factors and shows fluctuations independent of fishing. Considering the observed fluctuations, total catch should be adjusted according to observed natural changes in the stock. The stock structure and abundance should be closely monitored by fishery independent methods covering the complete distribution area.
Management unit: Yes
Source of information
FAO. 2016a. Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic, Report of the seventh session of the Scientific Sub-Committee, Tenerife, Spain, 14–16 October 2015 / Comité des pêches pour l’Atlantique Centre-Est Rapport de la septième session du Sous-Comité scientifique. Tenerife, Espagne 14-16 octobre 2015. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report / FAO Rapport sur les pêches et l’aquaculture No. 1128. Rome, Italy.  Click to open
FAO. 2016b. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa. Casablanca, Morocco, 20–25 July 2015 / Rapport du Groupe de travail de la FAO sur l’évaluation des petits pélagiques au large de l’Afrique nord-occidentale. Casablanca, Maroc, 20-25 juillet 2015. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report/FAO Rapport sur les pêches et l’aquaculture No. 1122. Rome, Italy/Italie.  Click to open
All references to figures, tables and bibliography in the text are found within the source of information.
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