Fisheries and Resources Monitoring System

Sardine - central stock (32°N-26°N)
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
CECAF Scientific advice 2016
Sardine - central stock (32°N-26°N)
Fact Sheet Citation  
Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) - stock central (A+B, 32°N-26°N)
Owned byFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
FAO Names: en - European pilchard(=Sardine), fr - Sardine commune, es - Sardina europea, ar - سردين أوروبا, zh - 沙丁鱼, ru - Сардина европейская

Fishery Indicators
Production: Catch
Geographic extent of Sardine - central stock (32°N-26°N)
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Spatial Scale: Local
Management unit: Yes        Reference year: 2013
Biological State and Trend
State & Trend Descriptors
Exploitation rateFcur/F0.1 = 48% ; Fcur/FMSY = 44%Not applicable
Abundance levelBcur/B0.1 = 122% ; Bcur/BMSY = 134%Not applicable
FAO Categories
Exploitation stateNot fully exploited

Fcur/F0.1: Ratio between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and F0.1.
Fcur/FMSY: Ratio between the observed fishing mortality coefficient during the last year of the series and the coefficient that would give a maximum sustainable yield over the long term.
Bcur/B0.1: Ratio between the estimated biomass for the last year and the biomass corresponding to F0.1.
Bcur/BMSY: Ratio between the estimated biomass for the last year and the biomass corresponding to FMSY.
Unless otherwise indicated, the indicators were based on the Schaefer dynamic production stock assessment model.
Habitat and Biology
Climatic zone: Temperate.   Depth zone: Coastal (0 m - 50 m); Shelf - Uppershelf (up to 100 m).   Horizontal distribution: Littoral.   Vertical distribution: Pelagic.  

Water Area Overview
Spatial Scale: Local

Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes

Sardine stocks distinguished by the Working Group were the same as those used during the previous Working Groups: the northern stock (35°45’­32°N), the central A+B stock (32°N­26°N) and the southern stock C (26°N­ the southern extent of the species distribution) (Figure 2.1.1 of FAO, 2016b).
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
ProductionCatch 331076tonnes1990
Catch 395719tonnes1991
Catch 272209tonnes1992
Catch 309685tonnes1993
Catch 442679tonnes1994
Catch 497417tonnes1995
Catch 358391tonnes1996
Catch 439505tonnes1997
Catch 381151tonnes1998
Catch 391978tonnes1999
Catch 514818tonnes2000
Catch 744970tonnes2001
Catch 634078tonnes2002
Catch 591849tonnes2003
Catch 534458tonnes2004
Catch 553231tonnes2005
Catch 388915tonnes2006
Catch 368535tonnes2007
Catch 478932tonnes2008
Catch 600496tonnes2009
Catch 504637tonnes2010
Catch 355014tonnes2011
Catch 390097tonnes2012
Catch 353743tonnes2013
Catch 573904tonnes2014

Assessment year: 2015
The CECAF Working Groups have adopted the following Biological Reference Points (BRPs):
- Limit Reference points: BMSY and FMSY
- Target Reference Points: B0.1 and F0.1
Stock status is assigned based on current estimates of fishing mortality (Fcur) and biomass (Bcur) relative to these target and limit reference points (Bcur/BMSY, Fcur/FMSY, Bcur/B0.1, Fcur/F0.1). The results from the stock assessment of this stock are found under the “Biological state and trend section”.
Assessment Model
Type:  Biomass-aggregated
Schaefer dynamic production model

The FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa prepared the data needed for the application of the dynamic production model and Length-Based Mortality Estimates. Zones A+B for the years 1995 to 2013. The Nansen series was used as an abundance index to fit the model.
A Surplus Production Model Incorporating Covariates (ASPIC)

For the ASPIC application, the data used are the total catches of the 1995-2013 series for Stock A+B and CPUEs obtained from landings of coastal purse seiners as well as biomass indices.
Overall Assessment Results

The fit of the dynamic production model was satisfactory for Stock A+B (Figure 2.6.3a of FAO, 2016b). The results indicate that the current stock biomass is higher than the target biomass B0.1 and the current fishing mortality is less than F0.1 (Table 2.6.1c of FAO, 2016b) [see also "Biological state and trend"]. The Powell Wetherall catch curve method has resulted in an exploitation rate F/Z = 0.47 indicating that the stock is not fully exploited. Moreover, the evolution of Z/K (which could indicate the evolution of Z if it is considered that K does not change much from one year to the next) indicates a fishing mortality in decline between 2011 and 2014. This result is in agreement with the results of the Biodyn model which attested to a good stock status in 2013. The reference points resulting from the application of the Aspic model, show that the current biomass level is higher than the target biomass B0.1 and that the fishing mortality is below the mortality F0.1 (Table 2.6.1b of FAO, 2016b). These results are in agreement with those obtained by the Biodynamic model.
Scientific Advice

The stock continues to improve as compared the 2013 assessment and the stock is considered nonfully exploited. The results of the projections were not conclusive. However, considering the instability of this resource vis-a vis environmental changes call for the adoption of a precautionary approach requiring setting a catch limit for sardine in this zone at the same level as for 2014, which is around 550000 tonnes .
Management unit: Yes
Source of information
FAO. 2016a. Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic, Report of the seventh session of the Scientific Sub-Committee, Tenerife, Spain, 14–16 October 2015 / Comité des pêches pour l’Atlantique Centre-Est Rapport de la septième session du Sous-Comité scientifique. Tenerife, Espagne 14-16 octobre 2015. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report / FAO Rapport sur les pêches et l’aquaculture No. 1128. Rome, Italy.  Click to open
FAO. 2016b. Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa. Casablanca, Morocco, 20–25 July 2015 / Rapport du Groupe de travail de la FAO sur l’évaluation des petits pélagiques au large de l’Afrique nord-occidentale. Casablanca, Maroc, 20-25 juillet 2015. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report/FAO Rapport sur les pêches et l’aquaculture No. 1122. Rome, Italy/Italie.  Click to open
All references to figures, tables and bibliography in the text are found within the source of information.
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