Fisheries and Resources Monitoring System

Kawakawa - Indian Ocean
Marine Resource  Fact Sheet
Stock status report 2018
Kawakawa - Indian Ocean
Fact Sheet Citation  
Kawakawa Indian Ocean
Owned byIndian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) – More
Related observationsLocate in inventorydisplay tree map
FAO Names: en - Kawakawa, fr - Thonine orientale, es - Bacoreta oriental

Fishery Indicators
Production: Catch
Geographic extent of Kawakawa - Indian Ocean
Main Descriptors
Considered a single stock: Yes        Management unit: Yes
Reference year: 2013
Biological State and Trend
State & Trend Descriptors
Exploitation rateNot subject to overfishing (F2013/FMSY (80% CI) = 0.98 (0.85–1.11))Moderate fishing mortality
Abundance levelNot overfished (B2013/BMSY (80% CI) = 1.15 (0.97–1.38))Intermediate abundance
Habitat and Biology
Climatic zone: Temperate; Tropical.   Horizontal distribution: Oceanic.   Vertical distribution: Pelagic.  

Geographical Distribution
Jurisdictional distribution: Highly migratory

Water Area Overview
Geo References
Resource Structure
Considered a single stock: Yes

No information is available on stock structure of kawakawa in Indian Ocean. The IOTC coordinated Stock Structure Project, which commenced in early-2015, aims to supplement gaps in the existing knowledge on biological data, and in particular provide an insight on whether neritic tuna and tuna like species should be considered as a single Indian Ocean stock.
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
ProductionCatch 4684tonnesAverage 1950 - 1959
Catch 8852tonnesAverage 1960 - 1969
Catch 20306tonnesAverage 1970 - 1979
Catch 42583tonnesAverage 1980 - 1989
Catch 72905tonnesAverage 1990 - 1999
Catch 109853tonnesAverage 2000 - 2009
Catch 134952tonnes2008
Catch 140756tonnes2009
Catch 133127tonnes2010
Catch 155446tonnes2011
Catch 160991tonnes2012
Catch 168185tonnes2013
Catch 160059tonnes2014
Catch 157468tonnes2015
Catch 159168tonnes2016
Catch 168305tonnes2017

A stock assessment was not undertaken for kawakawa in 2016 and status is determined on the basis of the 2015 assessment. Three modelling methods, Optimised Catch-Only Method (OCOM), Catch-MSY and SS3 (Stock Synthesis) were used to assess the status of kawakawa in 2015. There was a divergence in the results from the three assessments and it was decided that the OCOM method was the most robust and so should be used for providing stock status advice. Results from the SS3 model were highly dependent on the pole and line CPUE series from the Maldives which forms only a small component of total Indian Ocean catches, so more CPUE series and better length data are needed to improve this approach. The Catch-MSY method was designed to estimate MSY rather than stock status and makes assumptions about the final depletion level, so the OCOM model, which makes fewer assumptions about final depletion, was considered more appropriate for generating management advice. 
Assessment Model
Type:  Biomass-aggregated
Optimised Catch Only Method (OCOM)
Assessment Model
Type:  Age-structured
Stock Synthesis III (SS3)
Scientific Advice

Although the stock status is classified as not overfished and not subject to overfishing, the K2MSM showed that there is a 96% probability that biomass is below MSY levels and 100% probability that F>FMSY by 2016 and 2023 if catches are maintained at the 2013 levels. The modelled probabilities of the stock achieving levels consistent with the MSY reference points (e.g. SB > SBMSY and F<FMSY) in 2023 are 100% for a future constant catch at 80% of current catch levels in 2014, thus if the Commission wishes to recover the stock to levels above the MSY reference points, the Scientific Committee recommends that catches should be reduced by 20% of current levels.
Management unit: Yes
Source of information
IOTC–SC21 2018. Report of the 21st Session of the IOTC Scientific Committee. Seychelles, 3 – 7 December 2018. IOTC–2018–SC21–R[E]: 250 pp.  Click to open
All references to figures, tables and bibliography in the text are found within the source of information.
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