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Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Senegalese waters
Fishery  Fact Sheet
CECAF Fisheries Reports 2011
Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Senegalese waters
Fact Sheet Citation  
Crevettiers congélateurs espagnols
Owned byFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) – more>>
Fishery life cycleThis fishery terminated on 2006.

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Overview: The number of vessels operating in Senegalese waters during the last ten years of the fishery oscillated between 20 in 1999 and only 5 vessels in 2006. These shrimp-trawlers used to share fishing licences in the neighbour countries Mauritania and Guinea Bissau, moving to one or another fishing ground depending on the fish abundances or on the close seasons in Mauritania. The deep water rose shrimp P. longirostris was the target species for this fleet, thus constituting more than the 80% of the catches. It was followed by small proportions of the striped red shrimp A. varidens and of the West African geryon C. maritae (8-9%) and other crustaceans, cephalopods and fishes species. The fleet used to alternate the use of outriggers and the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors (“baka” type), depending on the target species. Thus, outriggers was used to fish P. longirostris during daylight hauls, while the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors was employed for a deeper fishery, especially targeting A. varidens and C. maritae in hauls made at night. The expiration of the last Fishing Agreement between Senegal and the EU caused the closure of this fishery in 2006.

Location of Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Senegalese waters
 

Geographic reference:  Spain
Spatial Scale: National
Reference year: 2011
Approach: Fishing Activity

Fishing Activity
Fishing Gear: Single boat bottom otter trawls  
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Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial
Fishery Area: Senegal; Atlantic, East …

Seasonality: November-August …

Harvested Resource
Target Species: Deep-water rose shrimp
Associated Species: Striped red shrimp; West African geryon; Tonguesole nei …  
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Means of Production
Vessel Type: Stern trawlers freezer
Fishery Indicators
Nominal Effort: Number of vessels
Participation: Number of fishermen
Production: Catch total; Catch P. longirostris; Catch A. varidens

History
 
The exploitation of deep-sea resources in waters off Senegal by the Spanish fleet began in the seventies. During these years, part of the Spanish shrimper fleet operating in North Western African waters extended to Senegal, where it started a deep-sea fishery targeting Parapenaeus longirostris. The access to this fishing ground was regulated by different Fishery Agreements, first between Senegal and Spain, and since 1986, between Senegal and the EU. These agreements were changing to more restrictive conditions to the Spanish fleet until the final closure of this fishery in June 2006.
Fishing Activity
Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial   

Fishery Area
Climatic zone: Temperate; Tropical.   Bottom type: Soft bottom.   Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m); Slope (200 m - 1000 m).   Horizontal distribution: Neritic.   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geo References for: Senegal

The Senegalese EEZ is dominated by several cyclonic gyres, including the Guinea Dome at 10ºN, 20ºW, driven by the North Equatorial Counter Current (Tomczak and Godfrey, 1994). Because the cyclonic rotation induces upwelling (doming of the thermocline), these features are more productive than the surrounding waters. The productivity of the Senegalese waters is high during winter, as a result of river run-off after the rainy season, localized upwelling, and cyclonic eddies retaining productive waters. Around May, the hydrographic conditions off Senegal become less favorable, with SST rising towards ca. 25ºC, stratification of surface water, and decreasing food availability (Zeeberg et al., 2008). The upwelling starts on the Senegalese continental shelf inducted by trade winds from November to January. Then, it extends from the North to the South coast, with a maximal intensity in March-April. Along the North coast, the upwelling localizes around Saint Louis, being extremely coastal and with maximal intensity in December-March. This marked seasonality of upwellings and the latitudinal displacement through the Mauritanian and Senegalese coasts produce important changes in the structure of the biological communities. In short periods (weeks), the system can alternate from a warm equatorial phase to a cold subtropical phase, this deriving in an alternated dominance between tropical and templates communities (Meiners, 2007).
Vessel Type
Stern trawlers freezer
Flag State
Spain

Average characteristics of the vessels during the last years of the fishery (period 1999-2006) were 31 m length, 152 GRT and 702 h.p.
Catch Handling and Processing Equipment
Freezing. Catches were classified in commercial categories (from 0 to 8), depending on their size, and frozen on board.
Crew
15-18 persons (Spanish, Mauritanian and Senegalese nationalities) (2009)
Fleet segment
Bottom otter trawl targeting crustaceans with minimum 40 mm mesh size. This fleet was exclusively composed of freezer shrimper trawlers, based at the Port of Huelva (SW Spain).
Fishing Gear
Single boat bottom otter trawls

These shrimpers used to alternate the use of outriggers and the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors (“baka” type), depending on the target species. Thus, outriggers were used to fish P. longirostris mainly during daylight hauls, while the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors was employed for a deeper fishery, especially targeting A. varidens and C. maritae in deep hauls made at night.
Seasonality
November-August (last fishery Agreement)
Trip Duration
30-90 fishing days
Ports
Huelva (SW Spain)
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
Nominal EffortNumber of vessels 5vessels2006
ParticipationNumber of fishermen 75-90persons2009
ProductionCatch total516tonnes2002-2006
Catch P. longirostris334tonnes2002-2006
Catch A. varidens35tonnes2002-2006
Post Harvest
 
Fish Utilisation
Wholesale and exportation
Markets
Huelva (SW Spain)
Management
Management unit: No

Jurisdictional framework
Management Body/Authority(ies): Ministère de l’Economie Maritime des Transports Maritimes de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture
Mandate: Management.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Senegal
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Body/Authority(ies): European Union
Mandate: Flag state responsibility for its fishing vessels operating in foreign area under national jurisdiction.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Senegal
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Regime
Last legal definition was the Council Regulation (EC) No 2323/2002 of 16 December 2002 on the conclusion of the Protocol setting out the fishing opportunities and the financial contribution provided for by the Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Republic of Senegal on fishing off the coast of Senegal for the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2006 (OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65). Management measures of the Spanish crustacean bottom trawl fishery in Senegalese waters were included in the fisheries agreement between the European Community and the Republic of Senegal. After the end of the last agreement (OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65) the Spanish fisheries in Senegalese waters were closed. Management measures described below are those included in this last fishery agreement.
Management Methods

Conservation and management measures with focus on Effort control (licences system) and catch control

  • Aquatic species-related measures
    Limitation of by-catches: 10 % finfish, 10% cephalopods, 2% lobsters. Prohibition of catches of Cetorhinus maximus (bashin shark/pèlerin), Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark/grand requin blanc), Carcharias taurus (sand tiger shark/requin taureau) and Galeorhinus galeus (tope shark/requin-hâ).
  • Gear-related measures
    Gear type (doubling of the twine forming the cod-end prohibited) and mesh size (minimum 40 mm)
  • Vessel-related measures
    Access control: Vessel size (3 500 authorized tonnage (GT) per month as annual average for bottom trawlers under the fishing category “Deep sea demersal freezer bottom trawl for crustaceans, with part of landings in Senegal”.)
  • Fishing activity-related measures
    Licences (3, 6 or 12 month’s long licences), vessel number (3 500 authorized tonnage per month as annual average), closed area (out of the fishing area established by the Agreement) and closed season (two months: October-November).
Related Fisheries - Fishing activity(ies) managed under the same management unit or being ruled by the same fishing agreement
Spain Bottom trawl octopus and cuttlefish fishery - Senegalese waters
Spain Bottom trawl black hake fishery - Senegalese waters
Source of Information
 
FAO, 2006a. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Conakry, 19-29 September 2003. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/67. FAO. Rome: 357 pp.
FAO, 2006b. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Saly, Senegal, 14-23 September 2004. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/68. FAO. Rome: 219 pp.
FAO, 2007. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Banjul, The Gambia. CECAF/ECAF Series. FAO. Roma (in press).
Official Journal of the European Union, 2002. Protocol setting out fishing possibilities and the financial compensations established by the Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Republic of Senegal on fishing in ff the coast of Senegal for the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2006. OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65.
Meiners, C. 2007. Importancia de la variabilidad climática en las pesquerías y biología de la merluza europea Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758) de la costa Noroccidental Africana. Tesis Doctoral, 187 pp. IEO-Univ. Politécnica de Cataluña.
Sobrino Yraola, I. et E. García-Isarch. Pêcherie des crevettes profondes du Senegal. Informe Técnico. Banco Mundial, Agencia de Cooperación Francesa y Agencia de Cooperación Española y Desarrollo (AECID). Dakar (Senegal). Octubre de 2009.
Sobrino, I. y T. García, 1992. Análisis y descripción de la actividad de la flota Española en la pesquería de crustáceos decápodos profundos en aguas de la República de Senegal durante el periodo 1987-1990. Inf. Tec. del Instituto Español de Oceanografía. Nº 125. 37 pp.
Tomczak, M. and J. S. Godfrey, 1994. Regional Oceanography: an Introduction. Pergamon, Oxford, 442 pp.
Zeeberg ,J., A. Corten , P. Tjoe-Awie, J. Cocab and B. Hamadyc, 2008. Climate modulates the effects of Sardinella aurita fisheries off Northwest Africa. Fisheries Research 89: 65–75.
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