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Spain Bottom trawl octopus and cuttlefish fishery - Senegalese waters
Fishery  Fact Sheet
CECAF Fisheries Reports 2011
Spain Bottom trawl octopus and cuttlefish fishery - Senegalese waters
Fact Sheet Citation  
Chalutiers Espagnols céphalopodiers
Owned byFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) – more>>
Fishery life cycleThis fishery terminated on 2006.

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Overview: The restrictions of the access to Moroccan fishing grounds forced the Spanish cephalopod fleet to extend the scope of fishing agreements to other countries, first to Mauritania, from where it extended progressively to southern latitudes (Senegal, Guinea Bissau and Guinea). Access conditions in these countries were also becoming the more and more restrictive and the Spanish cephalopod fleet fishing in the whole region has been reduced dramatically. This fleet currently is less than one third of its maximum size of 279 vessels in 1980. The last EU-Senegal fishery Agreement expired in June 2006, with no renewal. Gears utilized by these freezer trawlers could be prepared either with chains (Spanish trawl) or with bobbins in the footrope (Korean trawl). The preservation of catches was frozen, what allowed longer trips with an average duration of 50 to 60 days at sea. Most common cephalopod species exploited in this fishing ground were octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and cuttlefish (Sepia spp).

Location of Spain Bottom trawl octopus and cuttlefish fishery - Senegalese waters
 

Geographic reference:  Spain
Spatial Scale: National
Reference year: 2011
Approach: Fishing Activity

Fishing Activity
Fishing Gear: Single boat bottom otter trawls
Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial
Fishery Area: Senegal; Atlantic, East …

Seasonality: December-September …

Harvested Resource
Target Species: Common octopus; Cuttlefishes nei
Associated Species: European squid; Senegalese hake; Benguela hake …  
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Means of Production
Vessel Type: Stern trawlers freezer
Fishery Indicators
Nominal Effort: Number of vessels
Participation: Number of fishermen
Production: Catch total

Fishing Activity
Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial   

Fishery Area
Climatic zone: Temperate; Tropical.   Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m).   Horizontal distribution: Neritic.   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geo References for: Senegal

The Senegalese EEZ is dominated by several cyclonic gyres, including the Guinea Dome at 10ºN, 20ºW, driven by the North Equatorial Counter Current (Tomczak and Godfrey, 1994). Because the cyclonic rotation induces upwelling (doming of the thermocline), these features are more productive than the surrounding waters. The productivity of the Senegalese waters is high during winter, as a result of river run-off after the rainy season, localized upwelling, and cyclonic eddies retaining productive waters. Around May, the hydrographic conditions off Senegal become less favourable, with SST rising towards ca. 25ºC, stratification of surface water, and decreasing food availability (Zeeberg et al., 2008). The upwelling starts on the Senegalese continental shelf inducted by trade winds from November to January. Then, it extends from the North to the South coast, with a maximal intensity in March-April. Along the North coast, the upwelling localizes around Saint Louis, being extremely coastal and with maximal intensity in December-March. This marked seasonality of upwellings and the latitudinal displacement through the Mauritanian and Senegalese coasts produce important changes in the structure of the biological communities. In short periods (weeks), the system can alternate from a warm equatorial phase to a cold subtropical phase, this deriving in an alternated dominance between tropical and templates communities (Meiners, 2007).
Fleet segment
Bottom otter trawl for cephalopods with minimum mesh size of 70 mm
Vessel Type
Stern trawlers freezer
Flag State
Spain

Average characteristics of these vessels were 30 m length, 240 GRT and 900 h.p.
Catch Handling and Processing Equipment
Freezing
Crew
17 persons (2009)
Fishing Gear
Single boat bottom otter trawls
Gears could be prepared either with chains (Spanish trawl) or with bobbins in the footrope (Korean trawl).
Seasonality
December-September (during last fishing agreement)
Trip Duration
50-60 days at sea
Ports
La Luz, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (in Canary Islands) and Dakar (Senegal)
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
Nominal EffortNumber of vessels 5vessels2006
ParticipationNumber of fishermen 100persons2009
ProductionCatch total350tonnes(2002-2006)
Post Harvest
 
Fish Utilisation
Consumption and exportation
Markets
EU and Japan
Management
Management unit: No

Jurisdictional framework
Management Body/Authority(ies): Ministère de l’Economie Maritime des Transports Maritimes de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture
Mandate: Management.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Senegal
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Body/Authority(ies): European Union
Mandate: Flag state responsibility for its fishing vessels operating in foreign area under national jurisdiction.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Senegal
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Regime
Council Regulation (EC) No 2323/2002 of 16 December 2002 on the conclusion of the Protocol setting out the fishing opportunities and the financial contribution provided for by the Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Republic of Senegal on fishing off the coast of Senegal for the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2006 (OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65). Management measures of the Spanish cephalopods bottom trawl fishery in Senegalese waters were included in the Fisheries Agreement between the European Community and the Republic of Senegal. After the end of the last Agreement (OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65) the Spanish fisheries in Senegalese waters were closed. Management measures described below are those included in this last Fishery Agreement.
Management Methods

Conservation and management measures with focus on Effort control (licences system) and catch control.

  • Aquatic species-related measures
    Limitation of by-catches: 7,5 % shrimps. Prohibition of catches of Cetorhinus maximus (bashin shark/pèlerin), Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark/grand requin blanc), Carcharias taurus (sand tiger shark/requin taureau) and Galeorhinus galeus (tope shark/requin-hâ).
  • Gear-related measures
    Gear type (doubling of the twine forming the cod-end prohibited), and mesh size (minimum 70 mm)
  • Vessel-related measures
    Access control: Vessel size (Maximum 1 500 GRT/quarter) for bottom trawlers under the fishing category “Shore sea demersal bottom trawl for fish and cephalopods, with part of the landings and commercialisation in Senegal”).
  • Fishing activity-related measures
    Licences, vessel number (Maximum 1 500 GRT/quarter), closed area (out of the fishing area established by the Agreement) and closed season (Two months: October-November).
Related Fisheries - Fishing activity(ies) managed under the same management unit or being ruled by the same fishing agreement
Spain Bottom trawl black hake fishery - Senegalese waters
Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Senegalese waters
Source of Information
 
Balguerías, E., M.E. Quintero and C.L. Hernández-González, 2000. The origin of the Saharan Bank cephalopod fishery. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 15–23.
Balguerías, C.L. Hernández-González and C. Perales-Raya, 2002. On the identity of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 stocks in the Saharan bank (northwest Africa) and their spatio-temporal variations in abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Bulletin of Marine Science, 71(1): 147–163.
FAO, 2006a. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Conakry, 19-29 September 2003. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/67. FAO. Rome: 357 pp.
FAO, 2006b. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Saly, Senegal, 14-23 September 2004. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/68. FAO. Rome: 219 pp.
FAO, 2007. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Banjul, The Gambia. CECAF/ECAF Series. FAO. Roma (in press).
Meiners, C. 2007. Importancia de la variabilidad climática en las pesquerías y biología de la merluza europea Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758) de la costa Noroccidental Africana. Tesis Doctoral, 187 pp. IEO-Univ. Politécnica de Cataluña.
Official Journal of the European Union, 2002. Protocol setting out fishing possibilities and the financial compensations established by the Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Republic of Senegal on fishing in the coast of Senegal for the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2006. OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65.
Tomczak, M. and J. S. Godfrey, 1994. Regional Oceanography: an Introduction. Pergamon, Oxford, 442 pp.
Zeeberg ,J., A. Corten , P. Tjoe-Awie, J. Cocab and B. Hamadyc, 2008. Climate modulates the effects of Sardinella aurita fisheries off Northwest Africa. Fisheries Research 89: 65–75.
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