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Spain Bottom trawl black hake fishery - Senegalese waters
Fishery  Fact Sheet
CECAF Fisheries Reports 2011
Spain Bottom trawl black hake fishery - Senegalese waters
Fact Sheet Citation  
Chalutiers Espagnols de Pêche démersale au merlus noir
Owned byFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) – more>>
Fishery life cycleThis fishery terminated on 2006.

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Overview: This was a very selective fishery that especially targeted black hakes (M. polli and M. senegalensis), which constituted very high proportion of the landings (Fernández et al., 2004; Diop et al., 2004), that oscillated between 78-99% of total landings. Both species appeared mixed in landings, due to their external similarity, being registered as Merluccius spp. However, as most of the fishery was carried out at very deep waters and in the southern distribution zone of M. senegalensis (which has a shallower distribution), most landings corresponded to M. polli. The fishery had a seasonal activity, operating during the periods when both species were most abundant, mainly between September and April, being November and March the months with the highest activity. Freezing was allowed since the Agreement of 1992. However, for commercial reasons, this was a typical wet-fish activity and freezing practically disappeared in 2000. The fleet evolved to smaller and more efficient vessels, which constituted more than a half of the fleet in 2001. The Spanish fleet left the Senegalese fishing ground in December 2005, before the end of the last Fishing Agreement in June 2006.

Location of Spain Bottom trawl black hake fishery - Senegalese waters
 

Geographic reference:  Spain
Spatial Scale: National
Reference year: 2011
Approach: Fishing Activity

Fishing Activity
Fishing Gear: Single boat bottom otter trawls
Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial
Fishery Area: Senegal; Atlantic, East …

Seasonality: From September …

Harvested Resource
Target Species: Senegalese hake; Benguela hake
Associated Species: John dory; Dogfish sharks, etc. nei; West African geryon …  
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Means of Production
Vessel Type: Stern trawlers wet-fish
Fishery Indicators
Nominal Effort: Number of vessels
Participation: Number of fishermen
Production: Landing Volume Total; Landing Volume…

History
 
Spanish black hake fishery in North West African waters has been carried out since the decade of the ‘50s. At the beginning, the fleet was composed of side trawlers (called “bous”), mainly from Andalucía (S Iberian Peninsula). These trawlers were progressively extending their action ratio in their search for black hakes, finally reaching the Senegalese waters. First, these were fishing grounds of free access for the Spanish fisheries but from 1979 onwards, with the enforcement of the Law of the Sea, the Spanish fleets have been managed by fishing agreements between the Senegal and either Spanish or EU Administrations. There have been some periods with no fishery since 1988, when the first fishery agreement with the EU was signed. This was due to the absence of agreements during the negotiation periods before the renewal of the successive protocols.
Fishing Activity
Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial   

Fishery Area
Climatic zone: Temperate; Tropical.   Depth zone: Slope (200 m - 1000 m).   Horizontal distribution: Neritic.   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geo References for: Senegal

The Senegalese EEZ is dominated by several cyclonic gyres, including the Guinea Dome at 10ºN, 20ºW, driven by the North Equatorial Counter Current (Tomczak and Godfrey, 1994). Because the cyclonic rotation induces upwelling (doming of the thermocline), these features are more productive than the surrounding waters. The productivity of the Senegalese waters is high during winter, as a result of river run-off after the rainy season, localized upwelling, and cyclonic eddies retaining productive waters. Around May, the hydrographic conditions off Senegal become less favorable, with SST rising towards ca. 25ºC, stratification of surface water, and decreasing food availability (Zeeberg et al., 2008). The upwelling starts on the Senegalese continental shelf inducted by trade winds from November to January. Then, it extends from the North to the South coast, with a maximal intensity in March-April. Along the North coast, the upwelling localizes around Saint Louis, being extremely coastal and with maximal intensity in December-March. This marked seasonality of upwellings and the latitudinal displacement through the Mauritanian and Senegalese coasts produce important changes in the structure of the biological communities. In short periods (weeks), the system can alternate from a warm equatorial phase to a cold subtropical phase, this deriving in an alternated dominance between tropical and templates communities (Meiners, 2007).
Resources Exploited
Senegal hake, Benguela hake - Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia
West African geryon - Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia
Other resources: Stocks of John dory, anglers, sharks and scorpionfishes.
Discarded Species (Bycatch)
Malacocephalus occidentales

Commercial fish species as Lophius vaillanti, some species of sharks, rays and Scorpenidae (among other fishes). Crustaceans belonging to the family Lithodidae; and small quantities (in weigth) of cephalopods as the flying squids Todarodes sagittatus and Todaropsis eblanae). The most abundant non commercial species are fishes belonging to the Family Macrouridae (Trachyrincus scabrus, Nezumia spp, Coelorinchus caelorhincus, Malacocephalus laevis, M. occidentales, among others) and crustaceans of the Family Galatheidae (Munida spp).

Juveniles (commercial species) or unspecified (other species)
Vessel Type
Stern trawlers wet-fish
Flag State
Spain

Average characteristics of these vessels during the period 1996-2005 were 283 GRT, 943 h.p and 36 m length.
Catch Handling and Processing Equipment
Preservation in ice and freezing (disappeared in 2000)
Crew
16-18 persons (Spanish and Mauritanian nationalities) (2009)
Fleet segment
Bottom otter trawl for demersal fish with 70 mm minimum mesh

At the beginning, the fleet was composed of side trawlers called “bous”. These were mainly based in the Port of Cádiz (S Iberian Peninsula), which constitutes the traditional main market for landing and commercialization of these species. Through the years, this old fleet was scrapped, being gradually substituted by more modern vessels that were constructed in 2000. These new vessels were mainly based in Marin, La Coruña (in Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula) and Las Palmas (Canary Islands).
Fishing Gear
Single boat bottom otter trawls

This gear operates with polyvalent trawl doors. The net is constructed in conventional polyethylene, with thread thickness of 3-4 mm, being very elastic and very resistant to abrasion. The mesh size is 80 mm, excepting the cod-end, which is 70 mm and has rhombic-shape.


Seasonality
From September to April
Trip Duration
8 fishing days
Ports
Cádiz (S Iberian Peninsula), Marín, La Coruña (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula) and Las Palmas (Canary Islands).
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
Nominal EffortNumber of vessels 2vessels2005
ParticipationNumber of fishermen 32-46persons2009
ProductionLanding Volume Total1065tonnes2002-2005
Landing Volume Merluccius spp.1038tonnes2002-2005
Post Harvest
 
Fish Utilisation
Consumption
Markets
Cádiz (Spain)
Management
Management unit: No

Jurisdictional framework
Management Body/Authority(ies): Ministère de l’Economie Maritime des Transports Maritimes de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture
Mandate: Management.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Senegal
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Body/Authority(ies): European Union
Mandate: Flag state responsibility for its fishing vessels operating in foreign area under national jurisdiction.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Senegal
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Regime
Council Regulation (EC) No 2323/2002 of 16 December 2002 on the conclusion of the Protocol setting out the fishing opportunities and the financial contribution provided for by the Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Republic of Senegal on fishing off the coast of Senegal for the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2006 (OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65). Management measures of the Spanish bottom trawl black hake fishery in Senegalese waters were included in the Fisheries Agreement between the European Community and the Republic of Senegal. After the end of the last Agreement (OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65) the Spanish fisheries in Senegalese waters were closed. Management measures described below are those included in this last Fishery Agreement.
Management Methods

Conservation and management measures with focus on Effort control (licences system) and catch control

  • Aquatic species-related measures
    Limitation of by-catches: 7% crustaceans and 7% cephalopods (last Fishery Agreement). Prohibition of catches of Cetorhinus maximus (bashin shark/pèlerin), Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark/grand requin blanc), Carcharias taurus (sand tiger shark/requin taureau) and Galeorhinus galeus (tope shark/requin-hâ).
  • Gear-related measures
    Gear type (doubling of the cod-end prohibited, doubling of the twine forming the cod-end prohibited) and mesh size (minimum 70 mm).
  • Vessel-related measures
    Access control: Vessel size (Maximum 3 000 GRT/month as annual average for both longliners and bottom trawlers under the fishing category “Deep sea demersal bottom trawl and longline fishery, with no landings in Senegal”).
  • Fishing activity-related measures
    Licences; Vessel number (maximum 3 000 GRT/month as annual average for both longliners and bottom trawlers under the fishing category “Deep sea demersal bottom trawl and longline fishery, with no landings in Senegal”), closed area (out of the fishing area established by the Agreement) and closed season (Two months: May-June).
Related Fisheries - Fishing activity(ies) managed under the same management unit or being ruled by the same fishing agreement
Spain Bottom trawl octopus and cuttlefish fishery - Senegalese waters
Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Senegalese waters
Source of Information
 
Cervantes, A. y R. Goñi, 1986a. Datos de base de la pesquería española de merluza negra senegalesa en las divisiones 34.1.1, 34.1.3 y 34.3.1 de CECAF. En: Rapport du premier groupe de travail spécial sur les pêcheries de merlus et de crevettes profondes dans la zone nord du COPACE. COPACE/PACE Sér., 86/33, 180-186. FAO, Roma, Italia. NUEVO.
Cervantes, A. y R. Goñi, 1986b. Composición por tallas de la captura española de merluza senegalesa (Merluccius senegalensis Cadenat 1950) y merluza negra (Merluccius cadenati Doutre, 1960) en el área de CECAF, año 1982. En: Rapport du premier groupe de travail spécial sur les pêcheries de merlus et de crevettes profondes dans la zone nord du COPACE. COPACE/PACE Sér., 86/33, 232-239. FAO, Roma, Italia. NUEVO.
FAO, 2006a. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Conakry, 19-29 September 2003. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/67. FAO. Rome: 357 pp.
FAO, 2006. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Saly, Senegal, 14-23 September 2004. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/68. FAO. Rome: 219 pp.
FAO, 2007. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Banjul, The Gambia. CECAF/ECAF Series. FAO. Roma (in press).
Fernández-Peralta, L. 2009. Pêcherie des merlus du Senegal. Informe Técnico. Banco Mundial, Agencia de Cooperación Francesa y Agencia de Cooperación Española y Desarrollo (AECID), Dakar (Senegal). Octubre de 2009, 50 pp.
Fernández, L., B. Meissa, D. Thiao et A. Ramos, 2007. Rapport de la rencontre IMROP/CRODT/IEO pour la validation des statistiques de merlus noirs dans la zone COPACE. Série CECAF/ECAF, in press. Anexo, 25 pp.
Meiners, C. 2007. Importancia de la variabilidad climática en las pesquerías y biología de la merluza europea Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758) de la costa Noroccidental Africana. Tesis Doctoral, 187 pp. IEO-Univ. Politécnica de Cataluña.
Meiners, C, L. Fernández, A. Faraj and R. García-Cancela, 2010. Length-weight relationships of 12 deep-sea teleost fish species from the NW African slope. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. In press.
Meiners, C., L. Fernández, F. Salmerón and C. Hernández, 2010. Some biological parameters of deep-sea shark species from NW Africa. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria. In press.
Meiners, C., L. Fernández, F. Salmerón and A. Ramos, 2010. Climate variability and fisheries of black hakes (M. polli and M. senegalensis) in NW Africa: a first approach. Monográfico de Elsevier-Journal of Marine System, 80: 243-247.
Official Journal of the European Union, 2002. Protocol setting out fishing possibilities and the financial compensations established by the Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Republic of Senegal on fishing in off the coast of Senegal for the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2006. OJ L 349, 24.12.2002, p. 46–65.
Ramos, A. and L. Fernández. 1994. Las pesquerías de merluzas en los caladeros de África Noroccidental: Datos de base del año 1991. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr., 153: 132 pp. Madrid, España.
Ramos, A. and L. Fernández. 1995. Biology and fisheries of North-west African hakes (M. merluccius, M. senegalensis and M. polli). In: J. Alheit and T. Pitcher (eds.). Hake: Biology, fisheries and markets Series 15: 89-124. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
Tomczak, M. and J. S. Godfrey, 1994. Regional Oceanography: an Introduction. Pergamon, Oxford, 442 pp.
Zeeberg ,J., A. Corten , P. Tjoe-Awie, J. Cocab and B. Hamadyc, 2008. Climate modulates the effects of Sardinella aurita fisheries off Northwest Africa. Fisheries Research 89: 65–75.
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