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Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Mauritanian waters
Fishery  Fact Sheet
CECAF Fisheries Reports 2013
Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Mauritanian waters
Fact Sheet Citation  
Crevettiers congélateurs espagnols
Owned byFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) – more>>
Fishery life cycleThis fishery terminated on 2012.

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Overview: The fleet is composed of freezer shrimp-trawlers traditionally based in the Spanish Port of Huelva (SW Iberian Peninsula). These vessels operate in Mauritanian waters through EU-licences, which have annual and renewable character. Most of these vessels have shared licences with other fishing grounds, as Guinea Bissau, Guinea (until 2008) or Senegal (until 2006). They carry out fishing trips of different duration, which can oscillate from one to three months. P. longirostris and F. notialis are the target species of this fishery, both together constituting 80% of the catches, being P. longirostris the most abundant (47%). Both species are fished in shallower shelf waters, while other species as A. varidens and C. maritae are caught in deeper fishing grounds, each one constituting the 6% of the total catches. The main by-catch species are Melicertus kerathurus, Aristeomorpha foliacea and Aristaeopsis edwardsiana. Fishing depths are different depending on the target species: < 60 m for F. notialis, 170-300 m for P. longirostris and 350-700 m for A. varidens and C. maritae. Spanish shrimpers usually alternate the use of outriggers and the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors (“baka” type), depending on the target species. Thus, outriggers are used to fish P. longirostris and F. notialis, usually during daylight hauls, while the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors is employed for a deeper fishery, especially targeting A. varidens and C. maritae. These last deep hauls are usually made at night. Catches are frozen and transferred to merchant vessels, which transport them to the Port of Huelva. Main crustacean species are classified by sizes after their catches and commercialized in different categories. Greater yields of P. longirostris are obtained during the first six months of the year. During the summer the fishery especially targets F. notialis, as it occurs in November and December, after the close season. Maximum yields of both species are obtained during these two months. Nowadays, this fleet is allowed to fish in Mauritanian waters north of Cap Timiris (19º15.6’N), out of the protected area delimited in the Fishery Agreement and South Cap Timiris, beyond 6 miles.

Location of Spain Freezer bottom trawl shrimp fishery - Mauritanian waters
 

Geographic reference:  Spain
Spatial Scale: National
Reference year: 2013
Approach: Fishing Activity

Fishing Activity
Fishing Gear: Single boat bottom otter trawls  
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Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial
Fishery Area: Mauritania; Atlantic, East …

Seasonality: November-April …

Harvested Resource
Target Species: Deep-water rose shrimp; Southern pink shrimp; Striped red shrimp …  
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Associated Species: Plesionika shrimps nei; Caramote prawn; Aristaeopsis edwardsiana …  
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Means of Production
Vessel Type: Stern trawlers freezer  
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Fishery Indicators
Nominal Effort: Number of vessels
Participation: Number of fishermen
Production: Catch total; Catch P. longirostris; Catch F. notialis; Catch A. varidens; Catch C.maritae; Catch other crustaceans; Catch fishes…

History
 
The shrimp Spanish fishery in Mauritanian waters have been traditionally developed into the framework of fisheries agreements. The first one was signed by the Spanish Administration and Mauritania in 1964. Since 1987, these agreements have been negotiated and established through the EU.
Fishing Activity
Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial   

Fishery Area
Climatic zone: Temperate.   Bottom type: Soft bottom clean sand; Soft bottom muddy or muddy-sand.   Depth zone: Coastal (0 m - 50 m); Shelf (50 m - 200 m); Slope (200 m - 1000 m).   Horizontal distribution: Neritic.   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geo References for: Mauritania

The Mauritanian coast is part of one of the four major trade-wind driven continental margin upwelling zones in the world oceans, the northwestern African upwelling system (or the Canary Current System). In the Eastern Central Atlantic, the dynamics of an eastern boundary current interacting with trade wind-driven upwelling control this marine ecosystem with exceptionally high primary and secondary productivity (Cury and Roy, 1989; Binet, 1997; Demarcq and Faure, 2000). The upwelling off Mauritania is being described as a wind driven upwelling system restricted to a narrow strip along the coast. It can be separated into two regimes: south of approximately 20ºN upwelling is most pronounced during winter and spring, whereas upwelling north of 20ºN occurs all year round with a maximum intensity in summer and early fall (Mittelstaedt, 1991). The marked seasonality of upwellings and the latitudinal displacement through the Mauritanian and Senegalese coasts, produce important changes in the structure of the biological communities. In short periods (weeks), the system can alternate from a warm equatorial phase to a cold subtropical phase, this deriving in an alternated dominance between tropical and templates communities (Meiners, 2007). Off Cape Blanc the upwelling occurs throughout the year with periods of stronger intensity, while it lasts nine months off Nouakchott.
Discarded Species (Bycatch)
Chlorophthalmus atlanticus

Juveniles (commercial species) or unspecified (other species)
Vessel Type
Stern trawlers freezer
Outrigger trawlers
Flag State
Spain

Average characteristics of these vessels are 30 m length, 148 GRT and 625 h.p.


Catch Handling and Processing Equipment
Freezing. Catches are classified in commercial categories (from 0 to 8), depending on their size, and frozen on board.
Crew
15-18 persons (Spanish, Mauritanian and Senegalese nationality) (2009)
Fleet segment
Bottom otter trawl targeting crustaceans with minimum 40 mm mesh size
Fishing Gear
Single boat bottom otter trawls

These shrimpers usually alternate the use of outriggers and the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors (“baka” type), depending on the target species. Thus, outriggers are used to fish P. longirostris and F. notialis, usually during daylight hauls, while the classic bottom otter trawl with trawl doors is employed for a deeper fishery, especially targeting A. varidens and C. maritae. These last deep hauls are usually made at night.


Seasonality
November-April and July-August
Trip Duration
30-90 fishing days
Ports
Huelva (SW Iberian Peninsula)
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
Nominal EffortNumber of vessels 25vessels2008
ParticipationNumber of fishermen 375-450persons2009
ProductionCatch total3969tonnes2004-2008
Catch P. longirostris2496tonnes2004-2008
Catch F. notialis1027tonnes2004-2008
Catch A. varidens111tonnes2004-2008
Catch C.maritae37tonnes2004-2008
Catch other crustaceans56tonnes2004-2008
Catch fishes and cephalopods242tonnes2004-2008
Post Harvest
 
Fish Utilisation
Wholesale and exportation
Markets
Huelva (SW Iberian Peninsula)
Management
Management unit: No

Jurisdictional framework
Management Body/Authority(ies): Ministère des pêches et de l'économie maritime
Mandate: Management.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Mauritania
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Body/Authority(ies): European Union
Mandate: Flag state responsibility for its fishing vessels operating in foreign area under national jurisdiction.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Mauritania
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Legal definition
Vessels fishing for crustaceans other than spiny lobster and crab
Management Regime
Fisheries Partnership Agreement between the European Community and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (for the period 1 August 2008 to 31 July 2012) (OJ L 203, 31.07.2008, p. 4–59). Management measures of the Spanish crustacean trawlers fishery are included in the current Fishery Agreement between the European Community and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (OJ L 203, 31.07.2008, p. 4–59) under the fishing category number 1: “Vessels fishing for crustaceans other than spiny lobster and crab”.

Fishing agreement expired in July 2012. The new fishing agreement is in the ratification process by the European Parliament.
Management Methods

Conservation and management measures with focus on Effort control (licences system), catch control and fish size limits

  • Aquatic species-related measures
    Minimum sizes and weights of the saltwater fish, cephalopods and crustaceans established by the Fishing Agreement. For crustaceans: pink spiny lobster (Palinurus mauritanicus): 23 cm, deepwater rose shrimps (Parapenaeus longirostris): 6 cm, red crab (Chaceon maritae): 6 cm and southern pink shrimp, caramote prawn (Farfantepenaeus notialis, Melicertus kerathurus): 200 ind/kg. Limitation of by-catches: 20% fish, 15% cephalopods and 7,5 % crabs. Prohibition of catches of spiny lobster.
  • Gear-related measures
    Gear type (doubling of the cod-end prohibited, doubling of the twine forming the cod-end prohibited; protective aprons authorised in accordance with Article 24 of the Mauritanian Fisheries Code) and mesh size (minimum 50 mm).
  • Vessel-related measures
    Access control: Vessel size (maximum 7 313 GT authorized tonnage per licence period)
  • Fishing activity-related measures
    Licences, vessel number (7 313 GT authorized tonnage per licence period), closed area (out of the fishing area established by the Agreement) and closed season (two periods: May-June and September-October).
Status and Trends
 
The yields have been relatively stable during the last ten years, showing inter-annual fluctuations, typical of short-life species as the targeted crustaceans. An effort reduction has occurred from 2004 onwards.
Source of Information
 
Binet, D., 1997. Climate and pelagic fisheries in the Canary and Guinea currents 1964–1993: the role of trade winds and the southern oscillation. Ocean. Acta 20, 177–190.
Cury, P. and C. Roy, 1989. Optimal environmental window and pelagic fish recruitment success in upwelling areas. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 670–680.
Demarcq, H. and V. Faure, 2000. Coastal upwelling and associated retention indices derived from satellite SST. Application to Octopus vulgaris recruitment. Ocean. Acta 23, 391–408.
Diop, M., I. Sobrino, L. Fernández, T. García et A. Ramos. 2004. Evolution des prises accesoires des pêcheries spécialisées crevettière et merluttière dans les eaux mauritaniennes de 1950 à nos tours. Chavance P., M. Bâ, D. Gascuel, J. M. Vakily & D. Pauly (eds.) Rapports de recherche halieutique ACP-UE Fisheries, 139-152. Bruselas.
FAO, 2006a. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Conakry, 19-29 September 2003. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/67. FAO. Rome: 357 pp.
FAO, 2006b. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Saly, Senegal, 14-23 September 2004. CECAF/ECAF Series 06/68. FAO. Rome: 219 pp.
FAO, 2007. Report of the FAO/CECAF Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal resources. Subgroup North. Banjul, The Gambia. CECAF/ECAF Series. FAO. Roma (in press).
Meiners, C. 2007. Importancia de la variabilidad climática en las pesquerías y biología de la merluza europea Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758) de la costa Noroccidental Africana. Tesis Doctoral, 187 pp. IEO-Univ. Politécnica de Cataluña.
Mittelstaedt, E., 1991. The ocean boundary along the northwest African coast. Circulation and oceanographic properties at the sea surface. Progress in Oceanography 26, 307–355.
Official Journal of the European Union, 2008. Protocol setting out the fishing opportunities and financial contribution provided for in the Fisheries Partnership Agreement between the European Community and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania for the period 1 August 2008 to 31 July 2012. OJ L 203, 31.07.2008, p. 4–59.
Sobrino, I. and T. García, 1991. Análisis y descripción de las pesquerías de crustáceos decápodos en aguas de la República Islámica de Mauritania durante el periodo 1987-1990. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 112: 38 pp.
Sobrino, I. and T. García, 1997. Análisis de los descartes producidos por la flota española en la pesquería de crustáceos decápodos en aguas de la República Islámica de Mauritania. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 166: 24 pp.
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