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Spain Bottom wet fish and freezer trawlers shrimp fishery - Moroccan Atlantic coast waters
Fishery  Fact Sheet
CECAF Fisheries Reports 2011
Spain Bottom wet fish and freezer trawlers shrimp fishery - Moroccan Atlantic coast waters
Fact Sheet Citation  
Crevettiers espagnols de pêche fraiche et congélateurs
Owned byFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) – more>>
Fishery life cycleThis fishery terminated on 1999.

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Overview: The ice trawlers fleet was mainly based in the ports of Punta Umbría (Huelva, SW Spain), Almería and Málaga (SE Spain), while freezer vessels were mainly based in ports of the province of Huelva (SW Spain). The landing composition of wet fish-bottom trawlers was multispecific, being P. longirostris the main landed species (40%), followed by the European hake Merluccius merluccius (25%). Other important species for this fleet were the finfishes Micromesistius potassou, some species of the family Sparidae, Trachurus spp., Lophius spp., Mullus barbatus and the cephalopods Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The fishing operations were conditioned by the fact that catches were preserved in ice. Therefore, fishing trips were of 7-9 days and fishing area was limited between 35°30’ and 28°44’, and between 100 and 700 m depth (Cervantes and Goñi, 1985). The most frequented fishing grounds were located between Larache and Kenitra (35° 30’N -34° 00’N), where 85% of annual effort was exerted (Ramos and Fernández, 1994). This fleet experimented a progressive reduction of 70% in number througth the different fishing agreements. From 384 vessels in 1979, only 107 vessels operated in 1990 (Ramos et al., 2000). The freezer fleet was specialised in catching crustaceans, those constituting 90-97% of landings (Ramos and Fernández, 1994; Ramos et al., 2000). Parapenaeus longirostris was the main target species, with percentages oscillating between 40-64% in the period 1989-1998. Other crustacean species represented in proportions between 33-54% all together, were Aristaeopsis edwardsiana, Aristeomorpha foliacea, Aristeus antennatus and Nephrops norvergicus. Molluscs and fishes were in proportions lower than 5% by year. In the last fishing agreement (1995) only shrimpers bottom trawlers were allowed to operate in Moroccan waters (Ramos et al., 2000). The fishery was closed after the end of the agreement in 1999.

Location of Spain Bottom wet fish and freezer trawlers shrimp fishery - Moroccan Atlantic coast waters
 

Geographic reference:  Spain
Spatial Scale: National
Reference year: 2011
Approach: Fishing Activity

Fishing Activity
Fishing Gear: Single boat bottom otter trawls  
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Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial
Fishery Area: Morocco Atlantic coast-North Zone; Morocco; Northern coastal subarea

Seasonality: March to December …

Harvested Resource
Target Species: Deep-water rose shrimp; European hake
Associated Species: Aristaeopsis edwardsiana; Giant red shrimp; Blue and red shrimp …  
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Means of Production
Vessel Type: Stern trawlers wet-fish  
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Fishery Indicators
Nominal Effort: Number of vessels…
Production: Catch total…; Catch P. Longirostris…; Catch M. Merluccius…; Catch total…; Catch P. Longirostris…
Participation: Number of fishermen…

History
 
Andalusian bottom-trawl fleet traditionally exploited Moroccan fishing grounds, targeting both European hake and deep water rose shrimp, keeping the catches in ice. From 1986 onwards, some of these vessels, mainly from Huelva, transformed their holds in freezer cameras (Cervantes et al., 1992). This was the beginning of a specific freezer shrimp fishery.
Fishing Activity
Type of production system: Commercial; Industrial   

Fishery Area
Climatic zone: Temperate.   Bottom type: Soft bottom.   Depth zone: Shelf (50 m - 200 m); Slope (200 m - 1000 m).   Horizontal distribution: Neritic.   Vertical distribution: Demersal/Benthic.  

Geo References for: Morocco Atlantic coast-North Zone

The Moroccan Atlantic coast is part of one of the four major trade-wind driven continental margin upwelling zones in the world oceans, the northwestern African upwelling system (or the Canary Current System). In the Eastern Central Atlantic, the dynamics of an eastern boundary current interacting with trade wind-driven upwelling control this marine ecosystem with exceptionally high primary and secondary productivity (Cury and Roy, 1989; Binet, 1997; Demarcq and Faure, 2000). While coastal upwelling occurs mostly on the shelf, biogenic particles derived from upwelling are deposited mostly at the upper continental slope. Nutrient-rich coastal water is transported within the Cape Ghir filament region at 30°N up to several hundreds of kilometres offshore. Both upwelling intensity and filament activity are dependent on the strength of the summer Trades (Freudenthal et al., 2002).
Associated Species (Bycatch)
Aristaeopsis edwardsiana

Aristaeopsis edwardsiana, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, Aristeus antennatus, Nephrops norvergicus for the freezer fleet; Micromesistius potassou, Sparids, Trachurus spp, Lophius spp, Mullus barbatus, Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris for the ice-trawlers fleet.
Related Fisheries - Same fishing activity(ies) described by another national perspective (at the same or different aggregation level)
Morocco Spanish bottom trawlers shrimp and hake fishery - Northern zone
Vessel Type
Stern trawlers wet-fish
Stern trawlers freezer
Flag State
Spain

The average characteristics of these vessels during the last period of the fishery (1991-1998) were 67 GRT, 354 h.p. and 19 m length (for wet-fish trawlers vessels) and 99 GRT, 415 h.p. and 23 m length (for freezer vessels).


Catch Handling and Processing Equipment
Freezing (for freezer vessels) or conservation in ice (for wet-fish trawlers vessels)
Crew
15-18 persons (2009)
Fisherfolks Community
Andalusian and Moroccan fishermen community
Fleet segment
The Andalusian bottom-trawl fleet traditionally exploited Moroccan fishing grounds, targeting both European hake and deep water rose shrimp, keeping the catches in ice. From 1986 onwards, some of these vessels, mainly from Huelva, transformed their holds in freezer cameras (Cervantes et al., 1992). This was the beginning of a specific shrimp freezer fishery. Freezer vessels were mainly based at ports of the province of Huelva (SW Spain), while the wet-fish trawlers fleet was mainly based at the ports of Punta Umbría (Huelva, SW Spain), Almería and Málaga (SE Spain). Only shrimper bottom trawlers were allowed to fish in Moroccan waters in the fishing agreement expired in 1999 (Ramos et al., 2000). This fishing category was not contemplated in the new Agreement of 2006.
Fishing Gear
Single boat bottom otter trawls

At the beginning of the fishery, only wet fish trawlers operated in Moroccan waters by using bottom otter trawls. When freezer trawlers incorporated to the fishery, they changed the gears to bottom shrimp trawls with outriggers.


Seasonality
March to December (during the last fishery agreement)
Trip Duration
Average trip duration of 7 fishing days (wet fish trawler) and 40 fishing days (freezer fleet) during the period 1991-1998.
Ports
Algeciras, Puerto de Santa María, Cádiz (Cádiz) and Lepe, Punta Umbría, Huelva (Huelva), al in Andalucia (S Spain) for the freezer fleet. Santa Pola (Alicante), Almería (Almería), Málaga (Málaga), Algeciras, Puerto de Santa María, Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz) and Lepe, Punta Umbría, Isla Cristina. Huelva (Huelva) for wet fish trawlers.
Fishery Indicators
TypeMeasureValueUnitTime period
Nominal EffortNumber of vessels (wet fish trawler)64vessels1998
Number of vessels (freezer)30vessels1998
ProductionCatch total (wet fish trawlers)5716tonnes1993-1998
Catch P. Longirostris (wet fish trawlers)1754tonnes1993-1998
Catch M. Merluccius (wet fish trawlers)1504tonnes1993-1998
Catch total (freezer trawlers)1377tonnes1993-1998
Catch P. Longirostris (freezer trawlers)750tonnes1993-1998
ParticipationNumber of fishermen (ESP)1400 2009
Number of fishermen (MAR)1700 2009
Post Harvest
 
Fish Utilisation
Consumption (wet fish) and/or exportation (frozen shrimps)
Markets
Huelva (SW Spain), Cádiz and El Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz, S Spain)
Management
Management unit: No

Jurisdictional framework
Management Body/Authority(ies): Ministère de l'Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime. Département de la Pêche Maritime
Mandate: Monitoring; Management.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Morocco
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Management Body/Authority(ies): European Union
Mandate: Flag state responsibility for its fishing vessels operating in foreign area under national jurisdiction.  
Area under national jurisdiction: Morocco
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Legal definition
Shrimpers Bottom Trawlers
Management Regime
Agreement on Cooperation in the sea fisheries sector between the European Community and the Kingdom of Morocco of 1995 (OJ L 306, 19.12.1995, p. 7–43). Management measures of the Spanish shrimp bottom trawl fishery were included into the different Fisheries Agreement between the European Community and the Kingdom of Morocco. This fishery was closed after the end of the Agreement of 1995-1999. Management measures described below are those included in the last Fishery Agreement where this fishery was allowed (OJ L 306, 19.12.1995, p. 7–43) under the fishing category “Shrimpers Bottom Trawlers”.
Management Methods

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT MEASURES with focus on Effort control- Licences system

  • Gear-related measures
    Gear type (ban of double-net in the cod-end, ban of bending of the cod-end threads), mesh size (minimum mesh size of 50 mm).
  • Vessel-related measures
    Access control: Vessel size- Maximum 8 200 GRT/1999 (113 vessels)
  • Fishing activity-related measures
    Licences, vessel number (maximum of 113 vessels in 1999), closed area (Northern 28º44’N and inside the 12 miles zone) and closed season (two months: January and February).
Status and Trends
 
The fishery was closed in 1999, when the Agreement expired. The new EU-Kingdom of Morocco Fishery Agreement does not include shrimp fishery
Source of Information
 
Cervantes, A., I. Sobrino, A. Ramos, A. and L. Fernández, 1992. Descripción y análisis de los datos de las pesquerías de merluza y gamba de la flota española que faenó al fresco en África Noroccidental durante el periodo 1083-1988. Informes Técnicos. Instituto Español de Oceanografía 111: 85 pp.
Cervantes, A. and Goñi, R. 1985. Descripción de las pesquerías españolas de merluzas y crustáceos de África Occidental al norte de Cabo Blanco. En: C. Bas, R. Margalef y P. Rubiés (Eds.). Simposio Internacional sobre las áreas de afloramiento más importantes del Oeste africano (Cabo Blanco y Benguela). II, 825-850. Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras. Barcelona, España.
Cury, P. and C. Roy, 1989. Optimal environmental window and pelagic fish recruitment success in upwelling areas. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 670–680.
Binet, D., 1997. Climate and pelagic fisheries in the Canary and Guinea currents 1964–1993: the role of trade winds and the southern oscillation. Ocean. Acta 20, 177–190.
Demarcq, H. and V. Faure, 2000. Coastal upwelling and associated retention indices derived from satellite SST. Application to Octopus vulgaris recruitment. Ocean. Acta 23, 391–408.
Freudenthal, T., H. Meggers, J. Henderiks, H. Kuhlmann, A. Moreno and G. Wefer, 2002. Upwelling intensity and filament activity off Morocco during the last 250,000 years. Deep Sea Res. (II Top. Stud. Oceanogr.) 49, 17: 3655-3674.
Official Journal of the European Union, 1995. Agreement on Cooperation in the sea fisheries sector between the European Community and the Kingdom of Morocco. Protocol setting out fishing opportunities and the financial compensation and financial contributions. OJ L 306, 19.12.1995, p. 7–43.
Ramos, A. and L. Fernández, 1994. Las pesquerías de merluzas en los caladeros de África Noroccidental: Datos de base del año 1991. Informe Técnico Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 153, 132 pp. Madrid, España.
Ramos, A., R. González, T. García, I. Sobrino y L. Fernández., 2000. La crisis en el acceso al caladero marroquí: análisis de la evolución y situación de las pesquerías y recursos de merluzas y crustáceos. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr., 178: 171 pp.
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