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Thailand Shark Fisheries
Fishery  Fact Sheet
Status and trends of sharks fisheries in SouthEast Asia 2004
Thailand Shark Fisheries
Fact Sheet Citation  
Cha Larm
Owned bySoutheast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) – more>>

Overview: Main fishing gears landing shark and rays in Thailand are otter board trawler and pair trawler, according to sharks and rays fisheries statistics for year 1995-2005.

Location of Thailand Shark Fisheries
 

Geographic reference:  Thailand
Spatial Scale: National
Reference year: 2004
Approach: Fishery Resource

Harvested Resource
Fishery Area: Thailand

Captured Species: Brownbanded bambooshark; Grey bambooshark; Slender bambooshark …  
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Fishery Indicators
Catch

Harvested Resource
Type of production system: Commercial; Artisanal; Semi-industrial   

Fishery Area
Climatic zone: Tropical.   Horizontal distribution: Neritic.  

Geo References

Marine fishing ground within Thailand exclusive economic zone lie in part of the Gulf of Thailand and part of the Andaman Sea both near shore and offshore. For offshore fisheries, activities were also undertaken in Arafura Sea (southern part of Indonesian) under Indonesian government license (approximately 440 vessels of over 20-meter).
Captured Species
Vessel Type
Otter trawlers
Pair trawlers
There are many kinds of the fishing vessel landed in sampling site such as pair trawler, otter board trawler, gill netter, push netter and purse seiner, etc., but the data collection on shark fisheries were recorded only from otter board trawler and pair trawler which are the main fishing gears catching shark. The vessel length ranges from 12 to 23 meter.
Flag State
Thailand
Crew
Table 1. Fishery structure and landing site description
Fishing gear Size of boats (m) Number of Crews Fishing grounds
Pair trawl      
- Samut Prakhan 16-23 16-20 Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khirikhan
- Songkhla 12-18 10-12 Songkhla, Pattani, Nakhon Sithammarat
- Phuket 16-22 16-20 Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket and Kabi
Otter Board Trawl      
- Samut Prakhan - - -
- Songkhla 12-18 4-6 Songkhla, Pattani, Nakhon Sithammarat
  16-22 6-7 Off shore Indonesia, Malaysia
- Phuket 19-22 10 Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket and Krabi

Fish caught from pair trawler and otter board trawler was landed through carrier vessels with capacity ranged from 1,000 to 3,000 ton per vessels.
Fishing Gear
The collection of landing data from sampling sites in Thailand had been done from 1,118 fishing boats. Shark are caught by almost all kinds of gears (pair trawl, otter board trawl, fish gill net, hook and line, push net, purse seine and other fishing gears) as associated species. The total marine fishery production was 11,425,768.90 kg of which included 21,862.82 kg (0.19 %) of shark.

Pair trawls (not specified)

Otter trawls (not specified)

Gillnets (not specified)

Hooks and lines

Push nets

Purse seines
Trip Duration
The trip takes approximately 30 days.
Seasonality
January to December, with limitation during monsoon season.
Catch
Based on the fishery statistical gazette, Department of Fisheries, Thailand, the volume of shark catch has increased from 5,313 tons in 1995 to 13,918 tons in 2002. However, shark catch constituted for only 0.19 percent of total fish production.


Table 2. Catch of shark (MT) from fishery statistics in the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea (1995-2002)
Year Gulf of Thailand Andaman Total
OBT PT Other Total OBT PT Other Total
1995 2,429 233 150 2,812 1,873 648 4 2,501 5,313
1996 2,781 294 85 3,160 2,873 1,738 4 4,615 7,775
1997 2,640 279 75 2,994 2,847 1,776 - 4,623 7,617
1998 2,945 268 93 3,306 3,601 742 88 4,431 7,737
1999 6,060 174 68 6,302 3,008 773 35 3,816 10,118
2000 6,834 254 45 7,133 3,346 548 12 3,906 11,039
2001 5,938 267 580 6,785 3,848 470 43 4,361 11,146
2002 8,558 430 130 9,118 4,278 487 35 4,800 13,918
Average 4,765 275 153 5,201 3,209 898 28 4,132 9,333
Percent 51.06 2.95 1.64 55.73 34.38 9.62 0.3 44.27 100

Note: OBT: Otter board trawler, PT : Pair trawler
Post Harvest
 

Markets
Shark products are mainly for local used, dried fins are exported to Singapore, China, Sri Lanka, and Hong Kong. During 2001-2004, Total amount of shark frozen flesh export from Thailand was 114,131 kg. This exported value was 1,671,851 Baht. All of shark frozen flesh was only export to Singapore.
Fish Utilisation
All parts of sharks are fully utilized. Commodities derive from shark fisheries are fresh meat, dry salted meat, fish ball, dried fins, fish meal (from head, skin and stomached), liver, and teeth.
Management
Management unit: No

The Department of Fisheries, Thailand has implemented various regulations through the Fisheries Act of 1947, revised in 1953 and 1985. However, there are no existing management policies which concerning to shark, except a whale shark species (Rhincodontypus). Thailand is now in the process of establishing National Plan of Action on Conservation and Management of Sharks, in line with the IPOA Sharks.
Jurisdictional framework
Management Body/Authority(ies): Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Thailand
Mandate: Management.  
Area of Competence: Thailand
Maritime Area: Exclusive Economic Zone Areas (EEZ).  
Source of Information
 
Information on shark fisheries in Thailand was collected under the one year study on shark fisheries in the ASEAN region, conducted by SEAFDEC in collaboration with eight Member Countries, namely Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The study aims to develop standard method for information collection on shark fisheries, to be further undertaken by each Member Countries, to support sustainable managment and utilization of sharks in the ASEAN region.
For Thailand, the survey and data collection was undertaken by fisheries scientists and enumerators from three marine fisheries research and development centers: 1) the Upper Gulf Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center; 2) the Southern Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center; and 3) the Andaman Sea Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center.

“Report of Shark Fisheries in Thailand” The Study on Conservation and Management of Shark Fishries in Southeast Asian Region SEAFDEC 2004 Click to openhttp://www.seafdec.org
Bibliography
 
“The marine Fisheries Statistics 2000 Base on the Sample survey. Technical Paper No.3/2003” Fisheries Economic Division. Department of Fisheries. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives 2003.
“The marine Fisheries Statistics 1999 Base on the Sample survey. Technical Paper No.3/2002” Fisheries Economic Division. Department of Fisheries. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives 2002.
“The marine Fisheries Statistics 1998 Base on the Sample survey. Technical Paper No.3/2001” Fisheries Economic Division. Department of Fisheries. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives 2001.
“The marine Fisheries Statistics 1997 Base on the Sample survey. Technical Paper No.3/2000” Fisheries Economic Division. Department of Fisheries. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives 2000.
“The marine Fisheries Statistics 1996 Base on the Sample survey. Technical Paper No.7/1999” Fisheries Economic Division. Department of Fisheries. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives 1999.
“The marine Fisheries Statistics 1995 Base on the Sample survey. Technical Paper No.16/1998” Fisheries Economic Division. Department of Fisheries. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives 1998.
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